Please respond to a classmate discussion most especially the cosmic question with reference (LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2018). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. St. Louis,, MO: Elsevier)
Minimizing bias and decreasing threats to internal validity is important to experimental designs. How will a researcher use the three criteria, manipulation, randomization, and control to minimize bias and decrease threats to internal validity?
“Internal validity asks whether the independent variable really made the difference or the change in the dependent variable” (LoBiondo-Wood, & Haber, 2018, p.156). A researcher can establish Internal validity by ruling out other factors that can potentially threaten the relationship between variables. (LoBiondo-Wood, & Haber, 2018, p.156).
A researcher uses manipulation to decrease the risk of internal validation; the independent variable might be the administration, treatment, or intervention of one group within the study. The effect of this manipulation is measured to determine the results of the experimental treatment on the dependent variables and compared to the group who did not receive the treatment (LoBiondo-Wood, & Haber, 2018, p.154). The research is analyses and biases can be removed during manipulation to eliminate any kid of threats to validity of the work.
A researcher uses randomization minimizes bias using randomization of subjects. “randomization eliminates bias, aids in the attainment of a representative sample, and can be used in various designs. (LoBiondo and Haber, 2018, p. 155). A sampling selection procedure where each in a population has equal chances of being selected to the experimental group. Randomization ensures that other variables that could affect change in the dependent variable will be equally distributed among the groups, decreases selection biases (LoBiondo and Haber, 2018, p. 167).
The researcher uses control to hold conditions constant to limit bias that could influence the dependent variables under which an investigation can occur. If the investigator holds conditions to a constant group during an experiment, it limits the biases that could influence the dependent variables (LoBiondo and Haber, 2018, p. 167). The use of control helps to reduce threats to the validity of a research study
Many times, researchers state that randomized clinical trials (RCT) provide the strongest level of evidence for an individual study when using an evidence-based model. As a researcher, why do you think this statement is true?
The statement is true because Randomized control trials (RCTs) are classified as “gold standards” for providing information about cause-and-effect relationships (LoBiondo-Wood, & Haber, 2018, p.167). A well-controlled RCT using these properties provide more confidence that the intervention is effective and will produce results over time. (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018, P. 167). RCT generates the strongest level of evidence for an individual study because randomization, control, and manipulation minimize bias or error (LoBiondo-Wood, & Haber, 2018, p.167) The results obtained during the clinical trials are almost true representations of the effect than any other methods. RCT is highly selective, and the settings are also controlled, and it basically represents the entire population and both groups are treated the same with no bias so the results will be the same even if the researcher is different. (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018 p. 167).
When conducting an experimental design, how will you as a researcher, use intervention fidelity to increase the strength and quality of the evidence provided by the findings of the study?
As a researcher, I will use intervention fidelity to decrease and manage the threat to my internal validity. Fidelity means trustworthiness or faithfulness and in a study, the researcher uses intervention fidelity to standardize the intervention and plan how to administer intervention to each subject in the same manner under the same condition. (LoBiondo-Wood, & Haber, 2018, p.152). A study conducted that addresses issues related to fidelity maximizes the results of my study and decreases any form of bias that can be raised, and fidelity intervention will control preexisting conditions that may affect outcomes of my study which will increase the strength and quality of my evidence provided by my findings.
What is your cosmic question? (This is a question you ask your peers to respond to based on the chapter discussed in class this week i.e. Quantitative studies).
An experimental design is expected to have internal and external validity; which is more important in conducting a study and why?
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