Which of the following is NOT true of project management structures?
In selecting a management structure, the culture of the organization is not a huge consideration.
*All of the following are disadvantages of organizing projects within a matrix arrangement EXCEPT
*The structure that manages projects within the existing organizational structure is the organization.
Bill is working on a project involving the upgrading of a management information system. The project is being managed by the information systems department with the coordination of other departments occurring through normal channels. He is working in a _____ organization.
*Which of the following is an advantage of a functional project management organization?
Maximum flexibility in the use of staff.
*Which of the following is a disadvantage of functional project management organization?
All of these are disadvantages of functional project management organization.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of a projectized organization?
It is expensive.
*A project team that operates with a full-time project manager as a separate unit from the rest of the organization is structured using ____ organization.
Which of the following combinations represents the extremes of project organization?
Functional and projectized.
MegaComputers Inc., has assigned a project manager for each of the five new-product teams. The managers, as well as the project team members, work on the projects on a full-time basis. The structure being used is ____ organization.
*All of the following are organizational considerations when determining the right project management structure EXCEPT
*Elizabeth is considering how to structure a project team that will not directly disrupt ongoing operations. The project needs to be done quickly and a high level of motivation will be needed in order to do that. For this situation, the ____ organization would be the best choice.
At the project level, which of the following is a factor that should influence the choice of project management structure?
All of these are factors that should influence the choice of project management structure.
*Which are the three different matrix systems discussed in the text?
Weak, Strong, Balanced.
_________ organization is a hybrid form in which a horizontal project management structure is “overlaid” in the normal functional hierarchy.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding organizing projects within a matrix arrangement?
Its flexibility supports a strong project focus that helps alleviate stress among project team members.
In which of the following is the balance of authority strongly in favor of the functional managers?
*All of the following are functions culture plays in an organization EXCEPT
It replaces the need for a project selection process.
How does someone learn more about an organization’s culture?
All of these are examples of how someone can learn more about an organization’s culture.
Which organization’s culture is NOT a culture a project manager has to be able to operate in or interact with?
All of these are cultures a project manager has to be able to operate in or interact with.
Which structure would be most appropriate for developing a new, highly innovative product that has strict time constraints?
Dedicated project team.
*From the list below, which is NOT a primary characteristic of organizational culture?
Factors in identifying cultural characteristics include all the following EXCEPT
*Who is responsible for determining how tasks will be done in a weak matrix project management structure?
The functional manager.
Which of the following cultural characteristics relates to the degree to which employees identify with the organization as a whole rather than with their type of job or field of professional expertise?
Which of the following cultural characteristics relates to the degree to which work activities are organized around groups rather than individuals?
Which of the following cultural characteristic relates to the degree to which rules, policies, and direct supervision are used to oversee and control employee behavior?
*Which of the following cultural characteristics relates to the degree to which groups within the organization are encouraged to operate in a coordinated or independent manner?
Which of the following cultural characteristics relates to the degree to which management focuses on outcomes rather than on techniques and processes used to achieve those outcomes?
Means versus end orientation.
*How is project scope defined?
What you expect to deliver to your customer when the project is complete.
*Jose is looking at a document that outlines the specific deliverables and subdeliverables required to complete the writing of a technical support manual. He is most likely viewing the
Work breakdown structure.
There are 5 steps involved when defining a project; which of the following is the first?
Define the project scope.
Linda has just been assigned manager of a project to develop a new advertising campaign for an established product. Her first step should be to
Define the project scope.
*Which of the following is NOT true regarding scope creep?
It is when the cost of the project is more than expected.
*An expected output over the life of a project would be classified as
The first step of project scope definition is to
Define the overall objective to meet the customer’s needs.
*In reviewing the project plan, Susan sees that the first prototype must be completed by October_12. This would be best classified as a
*The ability of a 911 emergency system to identify the caller’s phone number and location is considered to be a
Which of the following is NOT one of the items that would appear on a project scope statement or checklist?
To construct a high-quality, custom home within five months at costs not to exceed $150,000 is best classified as
*There are 5 steps involved when defining a project; which of the following is the second?
Establish project priorities.
*One of the primary jobs of a project manager is to manage the trade-offs associated with the project. Which of the following is NOT one of the basic classifications of project priorities?
After reviewing the project scope statement, the owner specifies that costs MUST stay within $400,000. This criterion is classified as
Scott has just been given a project that has a specific completion date. After a discussion with top management he finds that while the date is important the cost is more important and a slip in delivery would be acceptable if required to meet the cost targets. The completion date is best classified as
The ____ is used to assist in making project trade-offs among schedule, budget, and performance objectives.
Project priority matrix.
The lowest element in the hierarchical breakdown of the WBS is
A work package.
*The highest element in the hierarchical breakdown of the WBS is
All of the following are ways the WBS helps in managing projects EXCEPT
Allows the project manager to establish the overall objective of the project.
*All of the following are usually included in a work package EXCEPT
All of these are included in a work package.
The integration of the lowest level of the WBS with the organizational units responsible for performing the work is known as
Organization breakdown structure.
There are 5 steps involved when defining a project; which of the following is the last?
Code the WBS for tracking.
*When work packages are integrated with organizational units, a control point is created called a
The WBS is best suited for projects that have a tangible outcome. Which of the following is used when the final outcome of the project is less tangible or is a product of a series of steps or phases?
Process breakdown structure.
*If a project is small and does not require an elaborate system to assign tasks, which of the following is a good choice?
*The project scope statement indicates that the client is responsible for training the people who will be using the equipment and that the project team will train the client’s trainers. This is an example of
Limits and exclusions.
*The tendency for the project deliverables to expand over time—usually by changing requirements, specifications, and priorities—is called
Which of the following is a good example of a Process Breakdown Structure?
New software program.
Which of the following is least likely to be included in a work package?
Having a strong communication plan can go a long way toward mitigating project problems. A communication plan should address all of the following EXCEPT
All of these should be addressed in a communication plan.
The personality of an organization is a simple explanation of ___.
*The approach to project management that uses the existing hierarchy of the organization to manage projects is ____ organization.
No radical alteration in the design or operation of the parent organization is a major advantage of ____ organization.
Two of the major disadvantages of the ____ organizational approach are that projects may lack focus and it can take longer to complete projects.
Firms where projects are the dominant form of business and the entire organization is designed to support project teams are usually structured as a(n) _____ organization.
A high level of motivation and the tendency for projects to get done more quickly are benefits of using the ____organizational approach to project management.
*High project costs and difficult post-project transition are two evident weaknesses of a(n) ____ organization.
In a(n) ____ system, there are usually two chains of command, one along functional lines and the other along project lines.
The ____ structure is designed to optimally utilize resources by having individuals work on multiple projects as well as being capable of performing normal functional duties.
*A matrix in which the balance of authority is strongly on the side of the project manager is described as
*A matrix in which the balance of authority is strongly on the side of the functional manager is described as
High levels of stress and dysfunctional conflict are disadvantages of a(n) ___ organization.
The ____ matrix form of project organization is likely to enhance project integration, diminish internal power struggles, and ultimately improve control of project activities and costs.
The ____ matrix form of project organization is likely to improve technical quality as well as provide a better system for managing conflict across projects because the functional manager assigns personnel to different projects.
The ____ matrix form of project organization can achieve better equilibrium between technical and project requirements, but it is a very delicate system to create and manage.
*___ project teams should be used for urgent projects in which the nature of the work requires people working steadily from beginning to end.
Conflict tolerance, risk tolerance, reward criteria and unit integration are all examples of cultural
Research suggests that there is a strong connection between project management structure, organizational ___, and project success.
Organization ____ refers to a system of shared norms, beliefs, values, and assumptions which bind people together, thereby creating shared meanings.
The more autonomy and authority the project manager and project team need to be successful, the more appropriate a dedicated project team or a(n) ____ matrix structure is to manage the project.
*When most of the project work can be done within a specified department and any coordination with other departments can be done easily through normal management channels, ____ organization is most appropriate.
*The cultural characteristic that refers to the degree to which rewards such as promotion and salary increases are allocated according to employee performance rather than seniority, favoritism, or other nonperformance factors is known as
The cultural characteristic that refers to the degree to which employees are encouraged to air conflicts and criticisms openly is known as
The cultural characteristic that refers to the degree to which the organization monitors and responds to changes in the external environment is known as
open systems focus.
The cultural characteristic that refers to the degree to which employees are encouraged to be aggressive, innovative, and risk seeking is known as
*A selective outline of the project that ensures the identification of all tasks and an understanding of what is to be done is called a(n)
work breakdown structure.
The first step in planning any project is to
define the project scope.
*The definition of the end result or mission of your project, or what you expect to deliver to your customer when the project is complete is the project
*Significant events in a project that occur at a specific point in time, are natural control points, and are easily recognized by project participants are known as
The need for a functioning computer in countries having different electrical systems is an example of a
The agreement that training will be the responsibility of the customer and not the team is an example of a project
limit and exclusion.
The last element of a project scope statement or checklist ensures an understanding and agreement of expectations. This is known as
*In regard to project priorities, if a project parameter such as the completion date or the cost of a project is fixed and must be met it is considered
Taking advantage of opportunities to reduce costs or accelerate the schedule are examples of project criteria classified as
*In making project trade-offs, a criterion that is allowed not to meet the original target, for example, allowing the schedule to slip, is classified as
A technique that clearly establishes priorities with customers and top management so as to create shared expectations and avoid misunderstandings is developing a(n)
The result of subdividing the work of a project into smaller and smaller work elements is called a(n)
work breakdown structure (WBS).
The most detailed element in the hierarchical breakdown of the project work to be accomplished is known as the
The intersection of work packages and the organizational unit creates a project control point called a(n)
When specific work packages are assigned to a particular group or person within the organization, the result is called a(n)
organization breakdown structure (OBS).
*The final step in defining a project is ____ the WBS for the information system.
The WBS is best suited for design and construction projects that have tangible outcomes. When the final outcome of the project is less tangible or it is result of a series of steps or phases, some project managers choose to utilize a(n)
process breakdown structure (PBS).
*Once the ____ has been established, it is the basis for making trade-off decisions later in the project.
The type of information that will need to be collected during a project and who will receive this information can be found in the project ___ plan.
*One tool that is used by project managers of small projects to summarize the tasks to be accomplished and who is responsible for what on a project is called a(n)
A document that is issued by upper management and provides the project manager with written authority to use organizational resources for project activities is called a(n)
Scope creep can be reduced by carefully writing a(n) ____ statement.
One of the primary jobs of a project manager is to manage the trade-offs among time, cost, and performance. To do so, the project manager must define and understand the ____ of the project.
The gradual expansion of project requirements, specifications and priorities during the execution of project is known as
*While organization culture is important to the overall function of an organization, it has minor influence on its project management.
There are often considerable differences in how projects are managed within certain firms, even when similar project management structures are being used.
The projectized form of project management structure is commonly used when one functional area plays a dominant role in completing the project or has a dominant interest in the success of the project.
The matrix form of project management structure is a good choice when resource usage needs to be optimized by having individuals work on multiple projects while still performing functional duties.
*A disadvantage of using the functional form of project management structure is that projects generally take longer to complete.
The functional project team is usually physically separated from the parent organization and given the primary directive of accomplishing the objectives of the project.
*In the projectized form of project management structure, there is limited technological expertise when compared to the functional or matrix organization.
The projectized form of project management structure is a good choice when speed of completion is important and the project needs to be implemented without directly disrupting ongoing operations.
One of the major disadvantages of the projectized form of project management structure is that it tends to be more expensive than other forms of organization.
One advantage of a matrix project management structure is that it is fast and easy to implement.
*A matrix project management structure is a hybrid organizational form in which a horizontal project management structure is “overlaid” on the normal functional hierarchy.
*When three forms of the matrix project management structure are considered, all share the same advantages and disadvantages and at an equal level.
*When determining the most appropriate project management structure, considerations need to be made at the organizational level and at the project level.
Generally, the more autonomy and authority the project manager and the project team need to be successful, the more appropriate to implement either a dedicated project team or a strong project management structure.
As discussed in the text, the three forms of matrix project management are weak, mixed, and strong.
*Within a matrix project management structure, the extent to which the project manager has direct authority over project participants depends on whether the matrix is weak, balanced, or strong.
In a balanced matrix form of project management, the project manager is responsible for defining what needs to be accomplished while the functional managers are concerned with how it will be accomplished.
The matrix form of project management is notable for the tension it creates between functional managers and project managers who both bring critical expertise and perspectives to the project.
*Member identity refers to the degree to which work activities are organized around groups rather than individuals.
*Control is the cultural characteristic that refers to the degree to which management decisions take into account the effect of outcomes on people within the organization.
Organizational culture refers to a system of shared norms, beliefs, values, and assumptions which bind people together.
Unit integration is the cultural characteristic that refers to the degree to which units within the organization are encouraged to operate in a coordinated or independent manner.
There are strong connections among project management structure, organizational culture, and project success.
Certain aspects of the culture of an organization support successful project management while other aspects deter or interfere with effective management.
*Scope creep occurs when your project is completed over-budget.
There is a strong correlation between project success and clear project scope definition.
Project scope describes what you expect to deliver to your customers when the project is complete.
*One of the items included on a project scope statement or checklist is the review with the customer.
An expected output over the life of a project would be classified as a target.
*An activity that represents a major segment of work is a good example of a milestone.
The fact that a new home being built must meet local building codes is an example of a limit and exclusion.
If a project criterion should be optimized if at all possible, it is classified as being constrained.
*If the project time should be accepted, then the project must be completed on time.
*During the course of a project, it is possible that the project priorities may change.
Profit, time and performance are all basic classifications of project priorities.
Integrating a project’s work packages within the organization’s management structure is known as work breakdown structure.
*The highest element in the hierarchical breakdown of the WBS is the first major deliverable for the project and the lowest element is a work package.
Responsibility matrices are used primarily with small and medium-sized projects and have limited use in large projects.
A communication plan should include limits on who has access to certain kinds of information.
The intersection of work packages and the organizational unit creates a project control point called a cost account.
*The project charter provides the project manager with written authority to use organizational resources for project activities.
For large companies, the organization breakdown structure is used rather than the work breakdown structure
*The hierarchical work breakdown structure provides management with information appropriate to each level.
The final stage in defining a project is coding the organization breakdown structure or OBS for the information system.
Reviews with customer only refers to projects with external customers who are paying for the project
*A typical responsibility matrix will include not only those responsible for a specific task but can also include those who supply support and assistance.