Lab report on Serratia marcescens Assignment | Online Homework Help

I have a lab report that has a “How To” attached to it. The professor wants it done in this specific guideline. HOW TO WRITE A LAB REPORT Lab reports are formal papers that describe and analyze lab experiments. Each of your two lab reports makes up 2.5% of your Microbiology grade. This is a template to help prepare you for completing this lab report. Your lab report should follow this very specific format, be labeled as such and include all applicable parts below. Report should be typed except for graphs, which may be configured on Excel, or hand drawn, or pictures. Do not use abbreviations unless they are spelled out and defined the first time. Binomial nomenclature must be in the correct form. Paper formatting: The paper should be typed and double spaced. Use a standard 12 point font (do not use cute fonts or colored paper!). Title: The title should be placed at the top center of the first page. Lab reports do not need a separate title page. The title should be specific enough that the reader will know the subject of the experiment. Titles such as “Macromolecules” or “Experiment 2” are too general and not acceptable. INTRODUCTION This section is a general discussion of the main topic under investigation. The introduction should explain the theories behind the experiment. Why is this question interesting and worth investigating? You should give enough information so that your readers will understand the experiment and will know why you are doing the experiment. In writing your purpose and reasons phrases such at “the purpose of this experiment is…” or “in this experiment we …” are considered poor writing. Your hypothesis or hypotheses should be presented toward the end of the introduction. Discuss the reasons for your hypothesis. Your hypothesis should be a logical extension of the background information presented. The rationale for your hypothesis should be clear from the preceding description of relevant theories. Your hypothesis helps to focus your research question. It needs to be an “if….then…” statement that includes the independent and dependent variables. Your hypothesis should be supported with an explanation and remember, a hypothesis is an “educated” guess, not a “random” guess and should be supported by your initial review of sources. Ex: If the glucose concentration is increased, then the amount of C02 produced will also increase. This is because glucose is used by yeast to make ATP through cellular respiration. The more glucose that is available, the faster the rate of cell respiration, and the more C02 that will be produced. C02 is a product of cell respiration in yeast, so the more C02 the faster the rate of cell respiration. A sufficient introduction will require that you do some research. You may use your lab manual, textbook, and class notes to provide information. Be certain that any internet resources are reliable and accurate. Information on “.edu” and “.gov” is usually reliable. Any and all information used that is not original must be given a proper citation. Failure to properly cite information is plagiarism and will bring severe consequences (see the “What is Plagiarism” & “Sources & Citations” sections that follow). MATERIALS & METHODS The Materials & Methods section describes how the experiment was performed. You need to give enough detail that someone could repeat the experiment from your description. Do not make a list of materials. Do not include obvious, trivial details. Look at the statements below: 1 – “The potato section was placed in 50 mL of 10% sucrose solution.” 2 – “A graduated cylinder was picked up from the lab cart. My lab partner filled it to the 50 mark with sugar solution. Then the solution was poured into a paper cup. Then a potato slice was added to the cup.” Statement 1 is clear and concise. Statement 2 is full of trivial detail but omits 2 essential details – the concentration and type of sugar solution used. Pay attention to numbers and units. Be certain all numbers have the correct units. Do not write out numbers – write “50 mL” not “fifty milliliters”. Be certain you do not leave a number on one line with its unit on the next! You need to have a detailed and thorough step-wise explanation of equipment used in your investigation. Make sure when writing up equipment descriptions you include: • The type and sizes of glassware such as beakers, flasks, etc. • The concentration of chemicals (e.g. hydrochloric acid, 2.0 M). • The amounts of chemicals (e.g. magnesium, 0.50 g). • The range of a thermometer (e.g. –20°C to 120°C) • The amount of each solution (e.g. 200 mL) Define the following variables: (Factors that can be measured or controlled) You must list identify all of the following: a. Independent Variable: The variable that YOU manipulate (change), and the result of this manipulation leads to the measurement of the dependent variable. (Make sure that you choose only one independent variable to change). b. Dependent Variable: The variable that changes when you change the independent variable (what you measure). c. Control (Constant): The control group in an experiment is the group to which nothing is done. The control is left alone so that the other variables may be compared to it. Do not include any results or measurements taken in this section. This section is also not the appropriate place for any explanations of why you got the results you did. You may cite the lab handout as your source for the information in the Materials & Methods section. RESULTS The Results section is a description of what happened in the experiment. Give a verbal description of all outcomes and measurements. Do not give long lists of numbers – present the data in tables. Pictures should be placed here. You should, however, give a summary of the numbers with a reference to the table or graph that contains all of the data. Since you are talking about something that has already happened – use past tense. Use impersonal language: not “I poured 50 ml water…”, but “50 ml of water was poured…” If your experiment had several different sections, you may want to divide your results with subheadings. Analyze the data, but you must save any interpretation of meanings for the “DISCUSSION” section. All processed calculations or graphs belong in this section. Units are of upmost importance here. How were the important variables controlled? All the aspects of the experiment must be kept constant to ensure that the experiment is valid. There may be several of these. You must be thorough and think of as many controlled variables as you can. That said, don’t include controlled variables that aren’t significant. For example, if you’re measuring the growth of yeast then the temperature definitely needs to be controlled (assuming temperature is not your independent variable) but being in the same location is not going to be a significant factor. You must explicitly indicate how each controlled variable identified in your variables section was controlled. If you can’t actively control a variable then your method should include a means of monitoring it. DISCUSSION The Discussion section is where you apply meanings to your data. What do the numbers and observations tell you about the phenomenon you are investigating? What did you find out? What does it mean? Do you accept or reject your hypothesis? Why? Use your data to support your conclusions. Be certain to refer to your controls. If your controls did not work, your experimental design is probably invalid or you made errors in carrying out the experiment. Compare your experimental data to your control data and results in the literature. State a conclusion, with justification, based on a reasonable interpretation of the data. Don’t just restate your results. Draw conclusions from them. Remember a hypothesis can only be supported or refuted. It cannot be “proven”! Conclusions such as “The results confirm my hypothesis” will not be accepted – especially if the results don’t “confirm” your hypothesis and even if they do. You must explain why/how your results support or invalidate your hypothesis. You can do this by referring to specific observations, the gradients/shapes of graphs or values collected/calculated. You need to show that you understand how your results support or invalidate your hypothesis. The discussion section is an appropriate place to discuss problems with the experiment and to suggest extensions of the experiment. How might the experiment be improved? What further experiments could be done to clarify things? What further experiments are suggested by your data? What conditions were assumed? ILLUSTRATIONS Graphs, diagrams, drawings, & photographs (but NOT tables) used to illustrate your report are referred to as Figures. Each figure should have a number and a caption. Number the figures in the order they are referred to in the report. The caption gives a brief description and identifies any symbols used. In the body of your paper, a drawing or graph should be referred to as Fig. 1, Fig 2, etc. Refer to the “Graphing” handout to decide what type of graph is appropriate for your data and how to properly draw the main types of graphs. Tables are used to organize numerical data. They are referred to as Table 1, Table 2 etc. and should also be numbered in the order they are referred to in the report. Tables should have captions that identify the data they contain. Pay attention to numbers and units in tables. WHAT IS PLAGIARISM?? Plagiarism in all forms is cheating and will not be tolerated. The most common forms of plagiarism encountered in lab report writing include • using information in a report without a proper citation • using another student’s work – i.e copying someone else’s paper. Even if you worked together on the lab and helped each other understand the experiment – you may not turn in similar copies of a report. It is not correct to use quotations of source information in a lab report. You must paraphrase the information that you use. If you do not know how to paraphrase – you must learn. You cannot change one or two words or change the order of the sentence. You must write the information in your own words. SOURCES & CITATIONS You must give proper credit for any and all information that does not come from your own brain! Failure to properly cite sources will result in a failing grade. Internal citations should be used. At the end of the sentence that contains the material from an outside source, place the author’s name and the page number where the information may be found in parentheses. All sources used will be listed in a “References” section at the end of your paper. Use standard MLA style giving complete information for each source. There is a great web page called the “Citation Machine” [http://www.landmark-project.com/citation_machine/index.php] that will generate them for you.

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