Explain why the ‘scala naturae’ and phylogenetic scale are incorrect.

Please answer the 5 questions below. Your answers should be given in essay form. There are no specific, quantitative requirements for the length of your responses.

1. Explain why the ‘scala naturae’ and phylogenetic scale are incorrect. (5 points)

2. Regarding Figure 1.4 in your text (or slide #5 in the lecture deck for Chapter 1): what do the relative positions of crow and wolf on the graph of cephalization index suggest about the comparative intelligence of crows and wolves? In other words: which of the two species would the graph suggest is more intelligent? Explain your answer. (10 points)

3. What conclusions can one make when comparing the data in Table 1.2 (page 12, Pearce) and Table 1.3 (page 14, Pearce)? What kind of research techniques can be used to avoid these kinds of erroneous conclusions? (10 points)

4. Compare and contrast George Romanes’ and Lloyd Morgan’s theoretical approach to the study of animal intelligence. (8 points)

5. What was the central theoretical assumption of the S-R (stimulus-response) theorists? How did the theories of Hull, Guthrie and Tolman differ from their predecessors -and each other? (12 points)


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