Employment and Disability Assignment | Essay Help Services

Personnel management policies
and practices and the inclusion of
individuals with disabilities:
a quantitative study
ABSTRACT
This study analyzes how the policies and practices of personnel management directed at individuals
with disabilities in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil, are configured concerning their insertion and inclusion
into the labor market. For such, a quantitative research of descriptive character was conducted using the
survey method. The research was developed with individuals, with and without disabilities, who worked
and resided in João Pessoa. In total, 90 individuals partook of the study, 45 of which presented disability
while the other 45 presented none. The questionnaire was applied in person and made available on the
internet by means of the Google Docs system. Data analysis was done using SPSS, consisting of a factorial
and descriptive analyses, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and non-parametric tests Kruskal-Wallis and
median. The results demonstrated that, despite the individuals with disabilities perceiving an evolution
of personnel management policies and practices applied by the organizations regarding the manner of
capturing, accepting and coexisting with individuals with disabilities, they are not yet enough to assure
their effective inclusion in the labor market.
Keywords: Individuals with disability. Inclusion. Labor market. Personnel management policies
and practices.
Alice Gerlane Cardoso da Silva1
Diogo Henrique Helal2
DOI: 10.5902/19834659 22157
Submission: 10/05/2016
Accept: 27/02/2018
1 PhD student in Administration, CEPEAD / Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG). Master in Administration, PPGA / Federal University
of Paraíba (UFPB). Graduated in Administration, Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG). Belo Horizonte – Minas Gerais. Brazil.
E-mail: alicegerlane@hotmail.com
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8084-6019
2 PhD in Human Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG). Master in Administration, PROPAD / Federal University of Pernambuco
(UFPE). Graduated in Administration, Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE). Belo Horizonte – Minas Gerais. Brazil.
E-mail: diogohh@yahoo.com.br
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1784-0941
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1 INTRODUCTION
The productivity ideals related to the entrepreneurial labor world do not agree with
incapacity and forms different from those dictated as society behavior and life models (CORRER,
2003, p.18). These ideals confront with the lack of knowledge of managers regarding the work capability
of individuals with disabilities (IwD), making their inclusion into the labor market difficult
(CARREIRA, 1997; CARVALHO-FREITAS, 2007). In addition, the IwD present higher incidence, intensity
and levels of multidimensional poverty (PINILLA-RONCANCIO, 2018) and greater violence
rate (KHALIHEH et al., 2013; MIKTON; SHAKESPEARE, 2014), when compared to individuals with
no disability (InD).
Due to this, the equality of labor opportunities and rights of individuals with disabilities
have become a challenge for organizational activity, since the companies are responsible for
adopting appropriate measures and means that would allow coexistence with the adversities,
disabilities and differences (LEAL; MATTOS; FONTANA, 2013).
The insertion of IwD into the organizations has gained force with the promulgation of
Laws no 8112/90 and no 8213/91 (quotas laws), which determined a percentage of the mandatory
hiring of IwD in public and private companies, in function of the number of workers. However,
the compliance to these laws has been known to allow only the insertion of IwD into the organizations,
and not their inclusion.
Attaining to the fact that hiring IwD is anchored only in the legal imperative, and it is
expected that the companies seek forms of circumventing these demands, of minimizing their
effects or even delay their effective application (SIMONELLI; CAMAROTO, 2011). Thus, it is perceived
that, despite the fact of legislation contributing to guarantee the basic rights of the citizen,
assuring professionals with disabilities the opportunity of partaking of the labor market, it does
not assure the effective inclusion of individuals with disability.
Even in European countries, the effective inclusion of IwD in organizations is challenging.
When studying Spanish organizations considered socially responsible, Sergóvia-San-Juan,
Saavedra and Fernandez-de-Tejada (2017) verified that they are more concerned with improving
their external image then guaranteeing the effective inclusion of IwD.
Thus, it is considered that the main changes to benefit the inclusion of IwD in the working
force of these organizations are those related to adapting the work conditions and practices,
sensitizing the workers and adapting their personnel management policies and practices (CARVALHO-
FREITAS, 2009). Wooten (2008) stated that, for overcoming inclusion barriers, the organization
must incorporate adaptations to their personnel management policies and practices in
order to accommodate workers with disabilities, balancing professional and personal needs.
International studies have demonstrated the existence of attitude barriers in organizations
in disfavor of IwD (BENOMIR, NICOLSON, BEAIL, 2016; ZHENHG et al., 2016; HAO et al.,
2015; ROHMER; LOUVET, 2018, among others). Other studies, such as that conducted by Honey
et al. (2014), indicate that, in comparison to InD, IwD have greater difficulties in maintaining
employment and advancing their career within the organizations. It seems clear, therefore, that
there are differences in personnel management policies and politics between IwD and InD.
In this context, the present study aimed at analyzing how the personnel management
policies and practices directed at individuals with disability are configured in João Pessoa, PB,
Brazil, regarding insertion and inclusion at work.
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2 THEORETICAL REFERENTIAL
2.1 From insertion to inclusion
The professional insertion of individuals with disability, that is, the act of introducing individuals
with disability into the work environment, allowing their coexistence and relations with
other individuals, and performing the professional activities entrusted to them (CARVALHO-FREITAS,
2007) has been practiced according to distinct postures and paradigms along history, in
different contexts and times (BAHIA; SCHOMMER, 2010).
Recent decades have been taken by different phases that systematize the relation between
individuals with disability and the labor market. Sassaki (2006) identifies four phases, from
exclusion, to segregation and interaction, until, finally, inclusion.
Until the 1970’s, the exclusion phase prevailed, of which main premise was isolation
from social coexistence, in both working environment and many aspects of societal life, followed
by segregation, characterized by tutelage and charity practices toward IwD (GIL, 2005; BAHIA;
SANTOS, 2010).
The integration phase emerged in the 1980’s and is characterized, especially, by the
mandatory adaptation of the IwD into society (BAHIA, 2006; BAHIA; SANTOS, 2010). From the
1990’s, discussions on the paradigm of social inclusion begin, substantiating the principle that
society must adapt to receive and coexist with IwD (WERNECK, 2003; SASSAKI, 2006).
The inclusion paradigm is normally confused with that of integration due to the fact
that its meanings contain, analogically, the same idea, that is, the insertion of IwD into social systems.
However, inclusion and integration largely differ in many aspects (MONTEIRO et al., 2011).
While integration implicates that the IwD is who must adapt to society (WERNECK, 2003; BAHIA,
2006), inclusion is understood as the process by which society adapts to receive and coexist, in
its general social systems, with IwD, and both, simultaneously seek their development to exercise
citizenship (WERNECK, 2003; SASSAKI, 2006).
The organizational daily live for these professionals is known to be challenging. Burnout
reports, for example, are common among professionals with disability (GIL-MONTE; FIGUEIREDO-
FERRAZ, 2013).
2.2 Labor market: perspectives and challenges
The formal occupation instituted by the signed work permit represents the access to
citizenship (FAGNANI, 2005). Such does not differ for IwD (TA; LENG, 2013). In this sense, Bezerra
and Silva (2010, p.18) state that work is, without a doubt, one of the routs to construct citizenship
for individuals with disability, but requires efforts from the society in search for institutional
arrangements that allow this public to be inserted into the labor market. The starting point is the
job offer. However, it is necessary to change the manner in which IwD are treated in the context
of work relations (ALLI et al., 2002).
To face the challenge that consists of the insertion process of IwD into the labor market,
it is necessary to elaborate laws that support IwD and that seek to expand the access opportunities
to work. Under this perspective are Laws no 8112 of December 11th 1990 (article 5th, §2nd) of
chapter I (of the Provision), section I (general dispositions), and no 8213 of July 24th 1991, article
93 of subsection on ‘professional habilitation and rehabilitation’. The first establishes up to 20%
of mandatory hiring of IwD (and/or rehabilitated) in public companies; the second disposes of
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plans for social security benefits, of which the private sector is required to destine 2 to 5% of their
work posts to IwD, provided they be employed proportionally to the total number of employees
(BRASIL, 1990; BRASIL, 1991).
However, it is important to note that the simple imposition of a requirement does not
guarantee its compliance, or that companies come to willingly offer decent working conditions
for IwD (PASTORE 2000, p.183). Barbosa-Gomes and Carvalho (2010) declare that the guarantee
of insertion is not enough. The possibility of their stay in the labor market in a just and equal
manner is necessary. On the other hand, Braga and Schumacher (2013, p.387) affirm that the
establishment of inclusive legislation into the labor force depends more on the acceptance and
understanding of the individuals the norm is destined for than on state force.
Thus, it remains for the companies to implement a more inclusive view, becoming more
conscientious and attentive to the insertion process of IwD, since the harmonious coexistence
between plural identity individuals and groups is not something that can be determined by law
(MOURÃO; SAMPAIO; DUARTE, 2012, p. 211).
2.3 Personnel management policies and practices
The field of personnel management is seen as an important ally in the creation of mechanisms
that can implement the wide inclusion process of individuals with disability at work. To
deal with this challenge, the professionals of the Personnel management field must develop abilities
indispensable for managing cultural and attitude changes, since they have the responsibility
to attract, capacitate and maintain the workers with disability (KLIMOSKI; DONAHUE, 1997;
DEMO et al., 2012).
International researches (e.g. BENOMIR, NICOLSON, BEAIL, 2016; ZHENG et al., 2016;
HAO et al., 2015) have reported the existence of different attitudes toward workers with disability.
To Zheng et al. (2016), the negative attitude toward disability is one of the main barriers
for individuals with disability reaching for egalitarian opportunities. Benomir, Nicolson and Beail
(2016) highlight that the culture and national context contribute for the configuration of such
attitudes.
In another study, Nota et al. (2014) demonstrate that such attitude barriers are also
present in employers. In their research with Italian employers, the owners of a medium sized
company of the metallurgy sector, it was verified that the type of disability and its aesthetic presentation
influenced employer attitude.
In the same sense, Rohmer and Louvet (2018), in an experiment conducted in France,
showed that individuals with disability were systematically associated to lower enthusiasm at
work and lower competence to initiate work when compared to individuals with no disability.
There seems to be no doubt that personnel management has the role of overcoming such attitude
barriers and achieve the effective inclusion of individuals with disability into organizations
and the labor market (FILGUEIRAS, VILAR, REBELO, 2015).
Therefore, it is believed that what is searched in personnel management is that it adapt
in order to equally address individuals with disability, even if different, in the same manner the
other collaborators in the labor market (SNELL; BOHLANDER, 2013, p.88). For such, the company
must organize itself. This adjustment can be done by combining the implementation of personnel
management policies and practices with adequate working positions (LENGNICK-HALL; GAUNT;
KULKARNI, 2008), in order to absorb and use the talent of professionals with disability, attaining
to the barriers that hinder these workers from exercising their work activities (PASTORE, 2000).
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For this research, the typology of personnel management policies and practices suggested
by Demo and others (2014), based on Bohlander and Snell (2009), was used. This typology
considers the following policies: recruitment and selection; involvement; training, development
and education; working conditions; performance and competences evaluation; and remuneration
and recompense. However, a cutout was performed for this study, considering only the two
groups of policies presented below: recruitment and selection; and training, development and
education, considering actions directed at IwD.
– Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment is a policy used by the company to invite candidates to ingress into the organization.
According to Snell and Bohlander (2013, p.158), recruitment is the process of locating potential
individuals to work for an organization and encourage them to candidate for positions already existent
or that will be opened. In this sense, recruitment can be internal, external or involve both. This will
depend on the availability of the personnel management professional, the policies adopted by the
organization and of the abilities required for such position (SNELL; BOHLANDER, 2013).
Selection begins when recruitment ends. Lacombe (2005, p.79) defines selection as the
set of practices and processes used to choose, from among the available candidates, that who
seems to be the most suitable for the existing position. For Snell and Bohlander (2013, p/208),
selection consists of a process for choosing individuals with qualifications relevant to the existing
or planned positions.
Studies regarding the organizational inclusion of individuals with disability are generally
restricted to the recruitment and selection policies and practices (CAMPOS; VASCONCELLOS;
KRUCLIANSKAS, 2013). This is due to the need for complying with legal demands. Under this perspective,
the organizations begin to blindly higher individuals to comply with the law and for the
need of capacitated professionals with disability for the work (BELTRÃO; BRUNSTEIN, 2012). It is
believed that some individuals with disability end up excluded from this process, given that some
companies have preference for certain disabilities (REIS; SILVA, 2012).
– Training, Development and Education
Training is an activity that involves the transmission of knowledge, the development and
stimulation of abilities, aiming at personal and professional learning and growth of individuals
and company, seeking to obtain a framework of prepared, qualified and competent professionals
to optimize the results and challenges. Marras (2000, p.145) states that training is a process of
short-term cultural assimilation, with the objective of transferring or recycling knowledge, abilities
or attitudes directly related to the execution of tasks or work optimization.
Allied to the training, organizational development has sought to develop human competences
and talents by means of continuous learning and organizational strategy. According to
Marras (2000, p.169), what is sought when developing a talent is awakening potential, allowing
these to emerge and grow to the desired level.
Regarding individuals with disability, Monteiro and others (2011) advocate that the
managers and remaining workers must be prepared and trained to welcome IwD into the working
environment, seeking to overcome prejudice and, consequently, implementing organizational
inclusion in this potentially productive group. For Jones (1997), it is necessary to provide training
for the work colleagues of IwD, since the initiative can serve to remove misconceptions regarding
the disability and instruct on how to best welcome this worker.
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3 METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES
To reach the proposed objective, a descriptive study with quantitative approach was
conducted. The research was developed with individuals with and without disability, who worked
diverse segments of public and private companies and resided in João Pessoa-PB, Brazil. A total
of 90 individuals participated, 45 of which presented disability and 45 who did not. The research
contemplated all types of disabilities, including visual, hearing, physical and mental/intellectual.
The subjects were selected by accessibility using the “snowball” technique. A survey
based on the Human Resources Policies and Practices Scale – HRPPS (DEMO; NEIVA; NUNES;
ROZZET, 2014), and sociodemographic questions were applied. The HRPPS contemplates six HR
policies: recruitment and selection; involvement; training, development and education; work
conditions; performance and competence evaluation; and remuneration and recompense.
However, a cutout was used for this research, approaching only two groups of policies:
recruitment and selection, and training, development and education, both comprised of six items
each. Thus, the items of the scale are personnel management practices related to the policies
abovementioned and measure the perception of the researchers concerning the personnel management
organizational policies.
The questionnaire presented items in the form of assertions, with the objective of evaluating
the level of agreement in a Likert scale of five points, with alternatives ranging from 1 to 5.
In addition, multiple-choice questions regarding gender, the company and sector of the company
in which they work, their functions, time in the position, age if deficient and which disability the
participants presented, complemented the questionnaire. These variables aided in describing the
profile of the individuals that defined the study sample.
The data were collected during the period from August to October of 2014. The participants
were contacted by personal contact, telephone, e-mail or social networks and, according to
the approval of each one, the application of the questionnaire was scheduled or the link (Google
Docs) was sent. The collected data were transposed to the SPSS program, version 20.2 and, subsequently,
submitted to statistical analyses.
For the data analyses, initially, a measuring scale analysis was performed, indicating
the analyses of the factors and scores obtained in each construct, separately. Subsequently, the
descriptive measures of each construct variables were verified per group (IwD and InD), emphasizing
the significant results in relation to the position measures.
The results were analyzed according to recommendations made by Demo and others
(2014). The authors suggest the following interpretation: the higher the value of the obtained
arithmetic mean, the more the participant agrees with the content approached by certain factor.
Values between 1 and 2.9 demonstrate discord, that is, the participant does not perceive the application
of the personnel management policy in his/her work context. Values between 3 and 3.9
indicate participant impassivity and, finally, values between 4 and 5 indicate agreement. Thus,
the more the mean approaches 5, the better the result, given that the participant perceives the
application of personnel management policies in their work environment.
After conducting these procedures, a multivariate data analysis was conducted using the
parametric technique analysis of variance (ANOVA) and non-parametric techniques Kruskal-Wallis
and median analyses. All procedures were based on specialized literature (HAIR et al., 2005;
COSTA, 2011).
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4 DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
In this item are presented the sequenced results of the statistical procedures. First, the
measuring analysis is demonstrated, followed by the descriptive analysis of the sample. Subsequently,
the analysis of variance (ANOVA), a parametric test, is performed, followed by the
non-parametric tests Kruskal-Wallis and median analyses.
Concerning the sample profile, the results indicated a disparity between the genders,
with 60% of men and 40% of women. The parameters of age of 31 to 40 years (37.8%), working
in the private sector (66.7%) and time in the position of 2 to 4 years (28.9%), obtained higher
answer frequency. Of the participants with disability, 25 (55.6%) presented physical disability, 14
(31.1%) presented hearing disability, 5 (11.1%) presented visual disability and 1 (2.2%) presented
two disabilities, hearing and physical. Thus, among the disabilities, the physical is the most prevalent,
followed by hearing.
4.1 Measuring Analysis
Initially, the quality indication measures of the variables in relation to the latent constructs
were analyzed. Thus, the exploratory factorial analysis was conducted using the principal
components method, conferring the internal consistency of the constructs and verifying the homogeneity
of the items within the scale.
In the factor-determining phase, the variables were analyzed in order to extract the highest
variance possible. Subsequently, the latent root technique (eigenvalue) was used, maintaining
only the significant values, that is, those presenting latent root and eigenvalue superior to 1.
It is pertinent to note that, after the first extraction of the construct originally denominated
recruitment and selection, the existence of two components with eigenvalue superior to 1
(one) was verified, which does not indicate a good extraction suitability, given that only one subjacent
factor was expected. Therefore, a thorough evaluation of the sense of the enunciates of
the variables of each factor was conducted, observing that the first factor comprised of three variables
presented sense related to the idea of recruitment and, the disclosure and information to
candidates regarding the selective process. Thus, the first factor was determined as recruitment.
The second factor comprised three variables that presented enunciates of which sense
were associated to the idea of selection and related to the set of practices and processes used to
choose the candidates. Thus, this factor was determined as selection. Therefore, the recruitment
construct is comprised of three variables, the selection construct, by three variables and training,
development and education, by six variables.
Table 1 presents the results from the exploratory factorial analysis of each variable belonging
to the recruitment, selection and training, development and education constructs, also
demonstrating the factorial scores and Cronbach alpha.
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Table 1 – Factorial extraction
Recruitment– Extracted variance=68.79%; Alpha=0.783
Variables Factorial
Scores
Apparent recruitment processes (external and internal) of candidates to occupy positions in
the organization in which I work are widely disclosed 0.81
The organization in which I work discloses to the candidates information regarding the stages
and criteria of the selection process 0.85
The organization in which I work communicates to the candidates their performance at the
end of the selection process 0.84
Selection – Extracted variance=65.86%; Alpha=0.705
Variables Factorial
Scores
The selection processes of the organization is which I work are disputed, attracting competent
individuals 0.77
The selection tests of the organization in which I work are conducted by capacitated and
impartial individuals 0.83
The organization in which I work uses many selection instruments (ex. interviews, tests, etc.) 0.76
Training, development and education – Extracted variance=64.44%; Alpha=0.885
Variables Factorial
Scores
The organization in which I work helps me to develop the competences necessary to the
good performance of my functions (ex. training, participation in congresses, etc.) 0.85
I can apply to my work the knowledge and behaviors learned during the trainings/events in
which I participate 0.78
The organization in which I work stimulates learning and the production of knowledge 0.87
In the organization in which I work, the trainings are evaluated by the participants 0.81
The organization in which I work invests in my development and education, widely providing
personal and professional growth (ex. total or partial funding for undergraduate or graduate
studies, language courses, etc.)
0.64
In the organization in which I work, the needs for training are periodically surveyed 0.81
Source: Research data (2014).
It was verified that the analyzed constructs presented an explanation degree of 68.79%,
65.86% and 64.44%, respectively, of the total variance, which indicates good extraction suitability.
Subsequently, the Cronbach alpha coefficient was extracted for measuring the confidence by
internal consistency. The values obtained were of 0.783, 0.705 and 0.885, respectively, demonstrating
a satisfactory level of consistency. When observing the factorial scores for each variable,
it is noted that all values obtained were high, which suggests that all variables were suitable.
4.2 Descriptive measure analysis
In this phase are presented the descriptive measures of position (mean and quartile),
dispersion (standard deviation) and form (asymmetry and kurtosis) per group (IwD and InD) of
the constructs identified in the factorial analysis. Table 2 shows the descriptive measures of the
recruitment construct.
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Table 2 – Descriptive measures of the recruitment construct
Panel 1 – descriptive measures of individuals with no disability
Variables Mean Standard
Deviation Asymmetry Kurtosis
Percentile
25 50 75
The apparent recruitment
processes (external and internal)
of candidates for filling
the positions in the organization
in which I work are
widely disclosed
3.13 1.59 -0.15 -1.57 1.50 3.00 5.00
The organization in which I
work discloses to the candidates
information regarding
the stages and criteria of the
selection process
3.36 1.61 -0.54 -1.35 1.00 4.00 5.00
The organization in which I
work communicates to the
candidates their performance
at the end of the selection
process
3.20 1.57 -0.23 -1.55 2.00 4.00 5.00
Panel 2 – descriptive measures of individuals with disability
Variables Mean Standard
Deviation Asymmetry Kurtosis
Percentile
25 50 75
The apparent recruitment
processes (external and
internal) of candidates for
filling the positions in the
organization in which I
work are widely disclosed
3.31 1.42 -0.43 -1.26 2.00 4.00 4.00
The organization in which I
work discloses to the candidates
information regarding
the stages and criteria
of the selection process
3.56 1.42 -0.58 -0.95 2.50 4.00 5.00
The organization in which
I work communicates to
the candidates their performance
at the end of the
selection process
3.20 1.48 -0.27 -1.37 2.00 4.00 4.50
Source: Research data (2014).
With the results obtained it was possible to note that the position measures of the variables
from both groups obtained values between 3 and 3.9, which generally indicate indifference
by part of the participants in relation to the assertions that comprise the construct, according to
Demo et al. (2014). However, they are better evaluated by IwD, since the means and quartiles of
the variables present higher scores for this group.
This perception of the worker with disability may be due to a change in the manner of
how organizations conduct their recruitment process and/or the demands conditioned to the
positions’ descriptions (STONE AND WILLIAMS, 1997). Fernandes (2008) corroborates with this
theory when stating that the organizations have sought to humanize the recruitment and selection
processes for candidates with disabilities. On the other hand, the process and demands are
still the same for candidates with no disability.
The variable “The organization in which I work discloses to the candidates information regarding
the stages and criteria of the selection process” is highlighted, having obtained the highest
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average scores regarding both groups, InD (3.36) and IwD (3.56). Concerning the quartile, this variable
presented a high score from the first quartile of the IwD group. This indicates that, among the
variables, this was the best fit to reality of recruiting experienced by the participants with disability.
This finding can be related to the fact of most companies are using the aid of specialized
consultants for recruiting these workers (OLIVEIRA, 2008). According to BEZERRA (2010, p.65),
this process is common among the organization and occurs in the following manner: the organizations
engage the institutions that work with the formation of this public for the labor market,
indicate the profile intended for the position and request that the institution send the suitable
candidate. This authenticates that which Alli et al. (2002) sustains, that the companies hire another
institution to perform the recruitment of the individuals with disability, receiving a previously
selected worker in return, that is, the organizations have been outsourcing this service.
This scenery fits the recommendations of Monteiro et al. (2011) and Nambu (2003) who
state that, with the difficulty in recruiting individuals with disability, the use of alternative resources
emerge, such as contact with care organs and institutions for individuals with disability. Therefore,
the use of this strategy can be supported by the opinions of the participants with disability.
In terms of standard deviation, the values are higher for the participants with no disability,
indicating that there was greater variability in their opinions regarding the assertions. Concerning
asymmetry, the variables are well behaved within the normality standards. These same
variables presented kurtosis values entirely outside the normality standard, with the exception of
only one variable related to the IwD group.
Table 3 presents the results of the descriptive measures of the selection construct.
Table 3 – Descriptive measures of the selection construct
Panel 1 – descriptive measures for individuals with no disability
Variables Mean Standard
Deviation Asymmetry Kurtosis
Percentile
25 50 75
The selection processes of the organization
is which I work are disputed,
attracting competent individuals
3.60 1.37 -0.71 -0.79 2.00 4.00 5.00
The selection tests of the organization
in which I work are conducted by
capacitated and impartial individuals
3.56 1.48 -0.65 -1.05 2.00 4.00 5.00
The organization in which I work uses
many selection instruments (ex. interviews,
tests, etc.)
3.91 1.39 -1.09 -0.15 3.00 4.00 5.00
Panel 2 – descriptive measures of individuals with disabilities
Variables Mean Standard
Deviation Asymmetry Kurtosis
Percentile
25 50 75
The selection processes of the
organization is which I work are
disputed, attracting competent
individuals
3.71 1.29 -0.75 -0.65 2.50 4.00 5.00
The selection tests of the organization
in which I work are
conducted by capacitated and
impartial individuals
3.69 1.34 -0.45 -1.27 2.00 4.00 5.00
The organization in which I work
uses many selection instruments
(ex. interviews, tests, etc.)
4.00 1.14 -1.13 0.53 3.50 4.00 5.00
Source: Research data (2014).
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In relation to the position measures, it can be verified that, despite the variables presenting
values between 3 and 3.9, they are higher for the variables of the participants with disability,
which indicated that the IwD better perceive the application of the variables. Such posture
ratifies the behavioral tendency of the companies in relation to the hiring of individuals with
disability, given that most rely on the service of consultants for the selection process of these
workers (OLIVEIRA, 2008).
Reis and Silva (2012) identified in their research that not all companies are concerned
in conducting recruitment and selection process. Many skip important stages, concerning only in
hiring workers with disability in order to comply with the law. Thus, the outsourcing process is
ever more commonplace among organizations that seek aid and orientation for recruiting and selecting
individuals with disability (ALLI et al., 2002); BEZERRA, 2010). According to Oliveira (2008,
p.55), companies use the aid of these consultants in the selection process because the last know
the norms and legislations, and can contribute in the process of seeking workers with disabilities
in the labor market. According to Alli et al. (2002, p.22), many institutions and entities assume
responsibility for the indication, referral or eventual substitution of a professional with disability.
Thus, the sending of suitable candidates for the position offered is the responsibility of these
institutions (BEZERRA, 2010).
According to Bahia, Schommer and Santos (2008), some companies still conduct interviews
and group dynamics after receiving the candidates selected by the consulting institutions
as a form of knowing the working facilities and difficulties of these individuals. This explanation
corroborates the result found for variable “The organization in which I work uses many selection
instruments (ex. interviews, tests, etc.)”, given that this was the only variable that achieved an
average value of 4.00, demonstrating agreement of the participants with disabilities with the
related assertion. It is worth noting that, in addition to obtaining the highest position measures,
this variable also presents the lowest deviation, which insinuates that the participants, especially
those with disability, were more cohesive in their opinions regarding this assertion.
However, these procedures can be performed either by the HR of the contracting companies,
or by the specialized consultants for selecting these workers. For Fernandes (2008, p.87),
the simple fact of the companies needing each other to perform the procedure in their stead is
an act of segregation. The same author states that the performance of a distinguished selection
process between candidates is also characterized as a form of segregation, as are the restrictions
imposed for hiring, such as presenting light disabilities and many qualifications.
In this sense, Carreira (1997) defends that the selection of an individual with disability
must be similar to that of an individual with no disability, because the finality is that both compete
under equal conditions. On the other hand, Nambu (2003) claims that the selection process
of the candidate with disability must be similar to that performed with individuals with no disability,
but not equal. Fernandes (2008) complements this view by clarifying that the procedures
must be the same to all, but the specificities of each candidate must be considered.
Regarding the standard deviation, it was verified that group InD presented higher values,
demonstrating a greater variation in the opinions of this group. In terms of asymmetry and
kurtosis, only one variable related to both groups was outside the normality standard.
Below, Table 4 exposes the descriptive measures related to the training, development
and education construct.
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Table 4 – Descriptive measures of the training, development and education construct
Panel 1 –descriptive measures of individuals with no disabilities
Variables Mean Standard
Deviation Asymmetry Kurtosis
Percentile
25 50 75
The organization in which I work helps
me to develop the competences necessary
to the good performance of
my functions (ex. training, participation
in congresses, etc.)
3.20 1.57 -0.45 -1.43 1.00 4.00 4.00
I can apply to my work the knowledge
and behaviors learned during the trainings/
events in which I participate
3.58 1.23 -0.49 -0.96 2.00 4.00 5.00
The organization in which I work stimulates
learning and the production of
knowledge
3.51 1.42 -0.64 -1.03 2.00 4.00 5.00
In the organization in which I work, the
trainings are evaluated by the participants
3.03 1.51 -0.04 -1.51 2.00 3.00 4.00
The organization in which I work
invests in my development and education,
widely providing personal and
professional growth (ex. total or partial
funding for undergraduate or graduate
studies, language courses, etc.)
3.27 1.52 -0.39 -1.36 2.00 4.00 5.00
In the organization in which I work,
the needs for training are periodically
surveyed
3.16 1.38 -0.45 -1.18 2.00 4.00 4.00
Panel 2 – descriptive measures of individuals with disabilities
Variables Mean Standard
Deviation Asymmetry Kurtosis
Percentile
25 50 75
The organization in which I work helps
me to develop the competences necessary
to the good performance of
my functions (ex. training, participation
in congresses, etc.)
3.49 1.50 -0.56 -1.11 2.00 4.00 5.00
I can apply to my work the knowledge
and behaviors learned during the trainings/
events in which I participate
3.47 1.27 -0.68 -0.58 2.50 4.00 4.00
The organization in which I work stimulates
learning and the production
of knowledge
3.64 1.40 -0.76 -0.68 3.00 4.00 5.00
In the organization in which I work,
the trainings are evaluated by the participants
3.04 1.52 -0.07 -1.43 1.50 3.00 4.50
The organization in which I work
invests in my development and education,
widely providing personal and
professional growth (ex. total or partial
funding for undergraduate or graduate
studies, language courses, etc.)
2.89 1.61 -0.05 -1.66 1.00 3.00 4.00
In the organization in which I work,
the needs for training are periodically
surveyed
3.29 1.39 -0.33 -1.09 2.00 3.00 4.50
Source: Research data (2014).
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It is possible to observe that the means present values between 3 and 3.9, indicating
insensibility of the participants in relation to the assertions that comprise the construct, according
to Demo et al. (2014). However, when analyzed by group, the variables are better evaluated by the
IwD group, given that the means and quartiles of the variables present higher scores for this group.
This perception can be based on the manner in which the companies address the workers
with disability, treating them with no discrimination and with the same level of demand applied
to all other workers, offering them training and courses for professional improvement and
development (OLIVEIRA, 2008). Reaffirming this understanding, Monteiro and others (2011) defend
that the managers and other workers must be prepared and trained to welcome IwD into
the work environment, seeking to overcome preconceptions and, consequently, implementing
organizational inclusion of this potentially productive group.
Therefore, it is worth highlighting variable “The organization in which I work invests in
my development and education, widely providing personal and professional growth (ex. total or
partial funding for undergraduate or graduate studies, language courses, etc.)”, which presents
lower scores, average of 2.89 in the first quartile. This suggests that the participants with disability
did not perceive the application of this variable.
In this context, Bahia, Schommer and Santos (2008) and Beltrão and Brunstein (2012)
emphasize that the lack of qualification is one of the greatest obstacles for not hiring IwD. However,
according to Monteiro et al. (2011, p.472), a socially compromised company thinks of other
paths to mitigate the critical framework in relation to this issue. Alli et al. (2002) orient that
companies that face this difficulty during the insertion process of IwD should establish accords
with capacitation programs available in non-governmental organizations, technical schools and
universities, or even implement projects for specific training pertinent to the functions the worker
with disability will perform.
Beltrão and Brunstein (2012) report in their research the experience of a company that,
when facing the obligation imposed by the law of quotas regarding the insertion of individuals with
disabilities into their staff, decided to hire IwD without the minimum qualification required. However,
to mitigate the effects of this choice, the company adopted development practices for this population.
Among the practices experienced by the workers with disabilities, the organization highlights
the cost of undergraduate programs, which is offered to a few disabled workers who choose to
continue their studies. Thus, this case proves that companies can promote actions that contribute
with the development of these professionals and guarantee the inclusion into the organization.
Concerning the standard deviation, very close values were obtained for both groups,
indicating a general low dispersion. In relation to asymmetry, it was identified that the variables
related to participants with and without disabilities are well behaved within the normality standards.
In relation to kurtosis, the data indicate that only one variable related to group InD presented
normality characteristic. For the participants with disability, only two variables presented
kurtosis within the normality standard.
4.2.1. Analysis of the descriptive measures of the aggregate variables
In this stage, the variables were aggregated in order to generate a single measure for
the construct. Therefore, in each construct, a weighted mean between the scores attributed by
the participants regarding the level of agreement was used, ranging from 1 to 5, according to the
aggregation method. After obtaining the aggregated results, the descriptive measures of position,
dispersion and form of each construct by group were analyzed.
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In Table 5 it is possible to verify the results of the descriptive measures on the aggregated
constructs related to both groups.
Table 5 – Descriptive measures of the group aggregate constructs
Panel 2 –descriptive measures of individuals with no disability
Variables Mean Standard
Deviation Asymmetry Kurtosis
Percentile
25 50 75
RECRUITMENT 3.23 1.34 -0.36 -1.16 2.00 3.65 4.33
SELECTION 3.68 1.14 -0.84 -0.23 2.95 4.00 4.66
TRAINING, DEVELOPMENT
AND EDUCATION 3.28 1.24 -0.42 -1.27 2.02 3.79 4.27
Panel 3 – descriptive measures of individuals with disability
Variables Mean Standard
Deviation Asymmetry Kurtosis
Percentile
25 50 75
RECRUITMENT 3.35 1.19 -0.02 -0.66 2.65 3.32 4.33
SELECTION 3.79 0.98 -0.88 0.55 3.29 3.96 4.67
TRAINING, DEVELOPMENT
AND EDUCATION 3.31 1.08 -0.49 -0.59 2.52 3.59 4.08
Source: Research data (2014).
Regarding the means, it was verified that all constructs obtained values between 3 and
3.9, indicating impassivity of the participants with the suppositions approached in the assertions,
according to Demo et al. (2014). However, when analyzed by group, the constructs are better
evaluated by IwD.
In relation to standard deviation, it was verified that the constructs related to the IwD
obtained less dispersed results, which indicated that the participants were convergent regarding
their positions on these constructs. For asymmetry, all constructs related to both groups demonstrated
values inserted within the normality standard. In terms of kurtosis, only the selection construct
related to group InD remained within the normality margin. For group IwD, all constructs
presented a suitable behavior for symmetric distribution.
In general, no construct aggregated by group obtained mean values between 4 and 5,
given that these are indicators of agreement.
4.3. Hypotheses analysis
Aiming to identify if the perceptions of the studied groups, individuals with and without
disabilities differ in relation to the constructs concerning personnel management policies and
practices of the organizations in which they work, the parametric technique of analysis of variance
(ANOVA) and non-parametric techniques of Kruskal-Wallis and median tests. With these
techniques, the reference measures (with p-value>0.05) were extracted for verifying the difference
between groups. Table 6 presents the results of the performed tests.
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Table 6 – Parametric and non-parametric tests
Constructs
F Test Kruskal-Wallis Test Median Test
F
(1.88 gl) P-Value χ²
(1 gl) P-Value χ²
(1 gl) P-Value
RECRUITMENT 0.220 0.640 0.073 0.786 1.111 0.292
SELECTION 0.246 0.621 0.141 0.707 0.179 0.673
TRAINING, DEVELOPMENT AND
EDUCATION 0.014 0.908 0.069 0.793 1.111 0.292
Source: Research data (2014).
By the parametric test (ANOVA), the indication was that there was no difference regarding
the perception of the subjects concerning the analyzed constructs of personnel management policies
and practices. By the non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Median tests), there was indication of
equality between the groups of individuals with no disability and with disability in relation to the perception
of the analyzed constructs concerning personnel management policies and practices.
Therefore, the results presented in Table 6, based on three tests (all with p-value>0.05),
indicate that the null hypothesis cannot be rejected, that there is equality in terms of perception
of the analyzed constructs between the groups of individuals with and without disabilities concerning
personnel management policies and practices. However, the position measures related
to the descriptive analysis demonstrated differences between the perceptions of both groups.
5 FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
The objective of this study was to analyze how the personnel management policies and
practices directed at individuals with disability configure in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil, concerning
their insertion and inclusion into the labor market. In this context, the research sought to expand
the understanding of IwD inclusion process from the perception of collaborators with disability
formally inserted into public and private organizations.
In the contingent of individuals involved in the studied sample, those of the male gender,
with age between 31 and 40 years, that have worked in the private sector for two to four
years, prevailed. Regarding the individuals with disability, it is worth noting that most present
physical disability, followed by hearing and visual disabilities. This predominance demonstrates
that the type of disability can favor or hinder the chances of an IwD obtaining a position in formal
work. Therefore, this type of inclusion consists of being excluding (SUZANO, 2011).
The inclusion of individuals with disability into the labor market requires changes of
personnel management policies and practices. An inclusive organization, according to Sassaki
(2006), is that which restructures the working environment, adapts technical procedures and
working instruments, effects changes in the forms of communication, in administrative practices
and in the mentality of all individuals, stimulating capacitation, maintenance and the permanence
of the worker with disability (REYES; ARTEAGA, 2017).
Under this perspective, the results indicate the absence of changes in the recruitment,
selection, and training, development and education policies and practices adopted by the companies.
This makes it difficult to include professionals with disability in the work environment,
since adaptations are necessary in order for inclusion to occur, such as the conditions necessary
for the deficient worker to maintain and develop in the employment.
Overall, it was verified that the only practice perceived by the IwD is related to the selection
policies, and is a reflex of the need for legal compliance. However, it is known that the deRev.
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velopment of an inclusion process in the working environment demands not only the implementation
of recruitment and selection practices, but also a reformulation of the practices, actions
and behaviors of all personnel management policies. Thus, despite the IwD having perceived an
advance in this practice developed by the organizations, it is necessary to indicate the existence
of aspects that attest to the inadequacy of the companies regarding the training, development
and education policy.
Furthermore, it was verified from the application of the parametric (ANOVA) and
non-parametric (Kruskal-Wallis) and median tests that no construct indicated significant difference
between the groups of individuals with and without disability, regarding their perception
regarding the analyzed constructs related to the personnel management policies and practices.
Based on the position measures, differences were identified between the perceptions of the participants
with and without disability, identifying that the IwD better perceived the applicability
of the personnel management policies and practices when compared to InD, although the values
obtained do not indicate agreement.
With these results, it can be concluded that, despite the participants with disability
perceiving evolution of the personnel management policies and practices developed by the organizations
regarding the manner of collecting, accepting and coexisting with IwD, these are not
yet sufficient to assure the effectiveness of the inclusion process of individuals with disability into
the labor market. Thus, the unsuitability of the personnel management policies and practices can
affect all of IwD management.
A recommendation for future researches would be conducting a research similar to
this, but in other environments and in different realities involving individuals with and without
disability. A study of this nature would allow a comparative analysis of aspects approached in
this research, but under different contexts, and would aid in answering questions, such as how
individuals with disability perceive the effectiveness of personnel management policies and practices?
Does the time of service generate difference in perception? Is there statistical difference
between genders?
Another line of investigation would be conducting a research sustained in the same
methodological approach adopted in this study, however, fostered by larger samples, for better
representing the potential perception differences regarding the analyzed constructs.
Future researches can also opt for the choice of a single personnel management policy,
and the use of qualitative methods, to conduct a multicase study and obtain a wider and deeper
view, seeking to identify the perceptions of individuals with disability regarding the effectiveness
of personnel management practices directed to their inclusion into the working environment.
Finally, studies that employ the qualitative approach, as well as other actors, such as managers
and work colleagues, can be conducted.
REFERENCES
ALLI, S.; PEREIRA, T. S.; ZYGBAND, S. F.; KUNTZ, A. P. O que as empresas podem fazer pela inclusão
das pessoas com deficiência. São Paulo: Instituto Ethos, 2002.
BAHIA, M. Responsabilidade social e diversidade nas organizações. RJ: Qualitymk, 2006.
BAHIA, M. S.; SANTOS, E. M. Práticas empresariais para a inclusão profissional de pessoas com
deficiência: um estudo de caso. In: CARVALHO-FREITAS, M. N.; MARQUES, A. L. (Org.). O trabalho
e as pessoas com deficiência. Curitiba: Juruá, 2010, p. 142-160.
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the employment market
of adapted physical education (APE) careers in higher education
since 1975 to see if the increase of this market has continued since
1998. Based on the data collected from the Chronicle of Higher
Education, a total of 887 APE job openings have been posted since
1975, including about 45% of the openings that were APE first
priority (i.e., APE as a major responsibility) and 55% were listed
as APE second priority (i.e., APE as a minor responsibility). The
yearly frequencies of APE job openings, the yearly proportions
of APE first priority, and the yearly proportions of APE second
priority over the years were analyzed by regression analysis and
descriptive statistics. The results revealed that the employment
market of APE professionals is a growing one in higher education;
however, the proportion of APE first priority contribution to the
market has been decreasing over the years, while the proportion of
APE second priority contribution to the market has been increasing
over the years. This growing employment market is therefore
primarily attributed to APE second priority openings.
Key words: teacher preparation
The enactment of the Education for All Handicapped Children
Act (now the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) requires
that physical education services, specially designed if necessary
must be made available to all students with disabilities receiving
a free and appropriate public education (Federal Register, 1977;
Sherrill 2004). This enactment has resulted in the fact that more
students have been prepared by more professors at colleges and
universities to teach adapted physical education (APE) in public
schools over the years. When more APE professors have been
needed for training more APE students, it has been assumed that
the employment market of APE careers in higher education has
grown over the past 34 years since 1975. This assumption has been
documented in three studies (Dunn & McCubbin, 1991; McCubbin
& Dunn, 2000; Zhang, Joseph, & Horvat, 1999).
Dunn and McCubbin (1991) published an article including
an analysis of the employment market of APE careers in higher
education. They collected the data for documenting the need for
more APE leadership personnel. A systematic analysis of the data
from the Chronicle of Higher Education, Dissertation Abstracts
International, and the Physical Education Gold Book revealed that
the number of available APE leadership personnel was not enough
to fill those job positions available in a growing employment market
of APE careers in higher education. They revealed that the number
of APE position openings at colleges and universities had linearly
increased between years 1981-1989, which partially supported the
assumption that the employment market of APE careers in higher
education has grown since 1975.
Zhang, Joseph, and Horvat (1999) investigated the marketable
features of APE careers in higher education. They identified 560
APE job openings, including 297 APE first priority (i.e., APE as
a major responsibility) and 263 APE second priority (i.e., APE as
a minor responsibility) from the Chronicle of Higher Education
between 1975-1976 and 1997-1998. These data were analyzed
by regression analysis, chi-square, and descriptive statistics. The
results indicated that the employment market of APE careers in
high education was a growing one that demanded more candidates
specializing in APE to prepare in other areas and encouraged
candidates specializing in other areas to minor in APE. In this
growing market, APE second priority openings increased more
quickly than APE first priority openings. This study further
confirmed the assumption that the employment market of APE
careers in higher education had grown from 1975-76 to 1997-98.
In reanalyzing the need for the preparation of APE leadership
personnel (i.e., doctoral APE students), McCubbin and Dunn
(2000) also depicted the employment market of APE careers in
higher education. Data were collected on those advertised APE
positions in the Chronicle of Higher Education from 1991 to
1998 that were used to compare to the numbers of APE personnel
prepared. They revealed that during this time period, the available
doctoral APE students completing dissertations was too small
to fill the APE job positions in higher education advertised in
the growing employment market of APE careers at colleges and
universities between 1991 and 1998. This result was clearly
similar to that found in the study by Zhang, et al (1999), partially
documenting the assumption that the employment market of APE
career in higher education has grown since 1975.
As a total of 34 years have been passed since 1975, however,
the results obtained from the above three studies could not be
employed in completely documenting this assumption that the
employment market of APE careers in higher education has
continued to grow since 1998. The above studies just documents
that the employment market of APE careers in higher education
has grown over years 1981-1989 (Dunn & McCubbin, 1991),
1991-1998 (McCubbin & Dunn, 2000), and 1975-1998 (Zhang, et
al., 1999). Has the employment market of APE careers in higher
education continuously grown after 1998? Research evidence has
not been found in a review of relevant literature. A need does exist
for initiating an investigation analyzing the employment market of
APE careers in higher education since 1975 to see if the increase
of this market has continued since 1998.
If a trend of the employment market of APE careers in higher
education over past 34 years can be fitted, moreover, the major
contribution made to this market by APE first priority or APE second
priority has not been made clear yet. A trend of the employment
market of APE careers in higher education is generally fitted based
on the yearly frequencies of APE job openings (Zhang, et al., 1999).
Each of the yearly frequencies of APE job openings (e.g., 45 in
1997) include two proportions, the proportion of APE first priority
openings in the total APE job market (e.g., 16/45 = 0.36) and the
Quantitative Analysis of the Adapted Physical
Education Employment Market in Higher
Education
22 Journal of Research
Quantitative Analyses
proportion of APE second priority openings in the total APE job
market (e.g., 29/45 = 0.64). A frequency signifies the total number
of APE job openings in a given year, while a proportion shows the
contribution of APE first priority openings or APE second priority
openings to the total number of APE job openings.
It is believed that yearly frequencies are useful for describing
an absolute trend of the employment market of APE careers in
higher education using APE job openings. It may mislead readers,
however, if they are used to seeing a developmental trend using
APE first priority opening or APE second priority openings.
For example, let us suppose that yearly frequencies of APE first
priority openings over the three years have grown (11, 12, 13) and
APE second priority openings over the same years have grown
as well (1, 7, 9), implying that total APE job openings have also
grown over the same years (12, 19, 22). However, the contribution
of APE first priority openings to the total APE job openings has
actually decreased based on the proportion (11/12 = 0.92, 12/19
= 0.63, 13/22 = 0.59). The yearly proportions of APE first and
second priority openings should therefore be used to depict market
trends. However, no study has been found using yearly proportions
of APE first and second priority to analyze their contributions to
the employment market of APE careers in higher education.
The primary purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyze
the employment market of APE careers in higher education since
1975, to see if the increase of this market has continued since
1998, based on the data of yearly frequencies of APE job openings.
Secondarily, this study analyzed the contributions of those APE
job openings requiring APE as a major and minor responsibility
to this employment market based on yearly proportions of APE
first and second priority. It has been assumed that the employment
market of APE careers in higher education has been a growing
market primarily contributed by either APE first priority or APE
second priority openings.
Method
Data Collection
The Chronicle of Higher Education was used as the primary
data source in this study. All the advertised announcements in
kinesiology, physical education, exercise science, sport science,
health, recreation, and dance from all issues of this primary
source since academic years 1975-76 were searched manually and
electronically. Each APE job opening announced was identified for
analyses if a responsibility for teaching an APE course, conducting
APE research, or equivalents was included in this opening. The
equivalents were such similar APE terms as adapted physical
activity, adapted kinesiology, special physical education, and
physical education for individuals with disabilities or similar terms
such as handicapped children.
It should be noted that if an APE job opening was repeatedly
advertised for two or more times during an academic year, this
job opening was identified once announced in this year only.
For checking the reliability of data collection conducted by a
researcher, another researcher also sampled 10 academic years of
announcements randomly from the total 34-year period between
academic year 1975-76 and academic year 2008-09. The Chronicle
of Higher Education is the best data source for advertising most job
openings in higher education, including most APE job openings. It
has extensively been used as the primary data source in conducting
career studies in special education (e.g., Sindelar, Buck, Carpenter,
& Watanabe, 1993) and APE (e.g., Dunn & McCubbin, 1991) in
higher education.
Data Categories
Three data sets were used in this study, (a) APE job openings,
(b) APE first priority, and (c) APE second priority openings. APE
job openings included the yearly frequencies of openings requiring
APE as a part of the job duty. APE first priority was the yearly
proportion of openings requiring an APE specialization with or
without the responsibility in one or more other areas. APE second
priority constituted a specialization in another area or a general
background across several areas with a responsibility for teaching
and researching in APE. Announcements coded as APE first or
second priority were independently completed by two researchers
to check reliability.
In the data set of APE job openings, a yearly frequency is simply
the number of APE job openings identified in the corresponding
academic year. In academic year 2005-06, for example, the yearly
frequency of APE job opening was 34, since a total of 34 APE job
openings were identified. In either data set of APE first priority or
APE second priority, a yearly proportion was calculated through
dividing the yearly frequency of one such data set by the yearly
frequency of APE job openings. In academic year 2005-06, for
example, the yearly proportion of APE first priority was 0.35
because the yearly frequency of APE first priority is 12 and the
yearly frequency of APE job openings was 34 (12/34 = 0.35).
Data Analyses
Four types of data analyses were conducted in this study.
The first type of analysis was a reliability analysis in the interobserver
agreement method. To check the reliability of identifying
APE job openings, coding APE first priority openings, or coding
APE second priority openings, the number of agreements found
between two persons was divided by this same number plus the
number of disagreements, and the quotient was then multiplied by
100 (Thomas & Nelson, 1996; Zhang, et al., 1999).
The second type of analysis was a calculation of regression
equations. All data sets were fitted in linear regression equations.
Each of these equations was calculated with academic years as the
predictor variable and the yearly frequencies for APE job openings
or proportions for APE first or APE secondary priority as the
criterion variable (Sindelar, et al., 1993; Zhang, deLISLE, Chen,
2006). The effect of the predictor variable on the criterion variable
was checked in an analysis of variance (F test) and a coefficient of
determination (R2).
The third type of analysis was a computation of the related data
pertaining to APE job openings found over the academic years from
1998-99 to 2008-09 – including the mean of APE job openings, the
standard deviation of APE job openings, and information about
fitted regression equations. These data were used to compare to
the corresponding data found over the academic years from 1975-
76 to 1997-98, which were reported in a previous investigation
(Zhang, et al., 1999).
The fourth type of analysis was a description of other
specialization areas in combination with APE responsibility.
volume 5, issue 2 23
Quantitative Analyses
The total number of these areas and their frequencies was first
counted. The distribution of the combined frequencies with APE
over areas was then analyzed with a chi-square test for goodness
of fit (x2; Thomas & Nelson, 1996) to verify if actual frequencies
were proportional to averaged ones. Ranks of these areas were
also listed according to the percentages in combination with APE
responsibility.
Academic APE job opening APE first priority APE second priority
Years Frequency Frequency Proportion Frequency Proportion
1975-1976 6 2 0.33 4 0.67
1976-1977 15 6 0.40 9 0.60
1977-1978 22 12 0.55 10 0.45
7198-1979 25 20 0.80 5 0.20
1979-1980 12 11 0.92 1 0.08
1980-1981 20 13 0.65 7 0.35
1981-1982 22 13 0.59 9 0.41
1982-1983 15 10 0.67 5 0.33
1983-1984 22 14 0.64 8 0.36
1984-1985 20 9 0.45 11 0.55
1985-1986 22 18 0.82 4 0.18
1986-1987 19 8 0.42 11 0.58
1987-1988 30 19 0.63 11 0.37
1988-1989 32 23 0.72 9 0.28
1989-1990 25 13 0.52 12 0.48
1990-1991 21 11 0.52 10 0.48
1991-1992 36 18 0.50 18 0.50
1992-1993 25 13 0.52 12 0.48
1993-1994 29 12 0.41 17 0.59
1994-1995 28 12 0.43 16 0.57
1995-1996 36 10 0.28 26 0.72
1996-1997 34 14 0.41 20 0.59
1997-1998 45 16 0.36 29 0.64
1998-1999 37 11 0.30 26 0.70
1999-2000 36 12 0.33 24 0.67
2000-2001 31 8 0.26 23 0.74
2001-2002 30 10 0.33 20 0.67
2002-2003 26 9 0.35 17 0.65
2003-2004 30 11 0.37 19 0.63
2004-2005 29 8 0.28 21 0.72
2005-2006 34 12 0.35 22 0.65
2006-2007 30 5 0.17 25 0.83
2007-2008 30 10 0.33 20 0.67
2008-2009 13 7 0.54 6 0.46
Total/Proportion 887 400 0.45 487 0.55
Table 1. Frequencies and Proportions of APE Job Openings, APE First Priority, and APE Second Priority
In Employment Market in Higher Education from Academic Year 1975-76 to 2008-09
24 Journal of Research
Quantitative Analyses
Results
The estimate of reliability for identifying APE job openings
from the Chronicle of Higher Education was 96%, while the
estimate of reliability for coding APE first and second priority was
91%. Table 1 presents the yearly frequencies of APE Job openings
and the yearly proportions of APE first priority and second priority.
As presented in Table 1, a total of 887 APE job openings were
identified in the Chronicle of Higher Education from academic
year 1975-76 to academic year 2008-09. In the total openings, the
proportion of APE first priority was 0.45, while that of APE second
priority was 0.55.
Table 2 presents the regression line fitted for APE job openings.
The rate of each trend is estimated based on coefficient of a variable
X with a positive coefficient showing an increasing trend and a
negative one showing a decreasing trend. As shown in Table 2,
regression equations fitted based on the yearly frequencies for APE
job openings and the yearly proportions for APE second priority
showed a significantly increasing trend, but regression equation
fitted based on the yearly proportions for APE first priority showed
a significantly decreasing trend.
Table 3 presents the related data computed for two phases,
including phase 1 over the academic years 1975-76 to 1997-98
and phase 2 over the academic years 1997-98 to 2008-09. The
averaged APE job openings obtained in phase 2 (M = 29.63) was
higher than the averaged APE job openings found in phase 1 (M =
24.39). The marketable trend fitted over phase 2, however, did not
increase as compared to the marketable trend fitted over phase 1.
The marketable trend fitted over phase 1 increases at a rate of 1.03
position opening per year, while the marketable trend fitted over
phase 2 decreases at a rate of 1.24 position opening per year.
Table 4 presents other specialization areas included in all
APE job openings and their frequencies, percentages, and ranks.
As shown in Table4, a total of 15 other specialization areas were
identified in combination with APE responsibility. The result of
chi-square test indicated a significant difference in the distribution
of the frequencies over these areas, x2 (14, N = 1490) = 4645.55, p
< .001. As presented in corresponding ranks based on percentages
in Table 3, the 15 other areas included in APE job openings were
ranked from physical education methods (the top one) to special
education and others (the last one)
Discussion
The results of this investigation document the assumption that
the employment market of APE careers in higher education has
grown since 1975. As shown in Table 2, the fitted equation of APE
job openings shows an increasing trend, which is increased by
0.48 APE job opening an academic year as indicated in the fitted
regression equation based on the yearly frequencies of APE job
APE Job APE First APE Second
Openings Priority Priority
Data Yearly Yearly Yearly
frequencies proportions proportions
Equation Y=0.48X – 935.74 Y=-0.01X + 22.95 Y=0.12X–22.89
Trend Increase Decrease Increase
Rate of
trend 0.48 1% (0.01 x 100) 12% (0.12 x 100)
R2 .33 .40 .42
F(1, 32)
value 15.97 21.47 23.19
P value .00 .00 .00
Table 2. Regression Equations Fitted based on the Yearly
Frequencies of APE Job Openings and the Yearly
Proportions of APE First Priority and APE Second
Priority from Academic Years 1975-76 to 2008-09
Phase 1 Phase 2
1975-76 to 1997-98 1998-99 to 2008-09
Mean of the
APE Openings 24.39 29.63
SD of the
APE Openings 8.74 6.38
Regression
Equation Fitted Y = 1.03X – 2024 Y = -1.24X + 2506
Trend of the
Fitted Equation Increase Decrease
Rate of the
Fitted Equation 1.03 1.24
R2 of the
Fitted Equation .65 .41
F value of the
Fitted Equation 38.84 6.36
P value of the
Fitted Equation .00 .03
Table 3. Mean, Standard Deviation, and Information about
Fitted Regression Equations based on the Yearly
Frequencies of APE Job Openings over Phase 1
from 1975-76 to 1997-98 and Phase 2 from
1998-99 to 2008-09
Other area Frequency Percentage Rank
Physical education methods 497 33.33 1
motor behavior and control 261 17.51 2
Health and wellness education 136 9.12 3
Tests, measurement, and evaluation 106 7.11 4
Biomechanics and kinesiology 104 6.98 5
Exercise physiology and fitness 100 6.71 6
Physical and recreational therapy 49 3.29 7
Sports management & administration 48 3.22 8
Sport medicine and athlete training 44 2.95 9
First aid, CPR, and safety education 39 2.62 10
Research methods 34 2.28 11
Sport psychology 28 1.88 12
Sport history, philosophy, sociology 22 1.48 13
Statistics and computer application 12 0.80 14
Special education and others 11 0.74 15
Total 1491 100 —
Table 4. Frequencies, Percentages, and Ranks of Other
Areas in Combination with APE Job Openings
from Academic Years 1975-76 – 2008-09
volume 5, issue 2 25
Quantitative Analyses
openings (Y = 0.48X – 935.74, R2 = .33, F[1, 32] = 15.97, and p =
.00). Since the F test for this regression reveals a significant linear
relationship between the predictor variable (years) and the criterion
variable (job openings), we can conclude that the job market of
APE careers in higher education is growing over the past 34 years.
This finding clearly supports the prediction of a continued increase
in the APE job market in higher education since 1975 made by
Zhang, et al., 1999.
It should be noted that even though the averaged APE job
openings increased from phase 1 (academic years from 1976-76
to 1997-98) to phase 2 (academic years from 1998-99 to 2008-09)
– as presented in Table 3, the trend of the APE job market over the
phase 2 period decreased at a rate of 1.24 position openings per
year. The reasons why this happened are potentially complicated
but two are presented here as possibilities. One reason refers to
the inclusion movement over the past 10 years, which places
students with disabilities in general PE classes, perhaps resulting
in APE being de-emphasized in programs. Another reason refers
to economic difficulties over recent years, which has resulted in
budget cuts for higher education overall, and therefore maybe
resulting in APE professor positions being frozen in universities.
The decrease of the APE job market trend over phase 2, however,
does not change the overall APE job market increasing from
academic years 1975-76 to 2008-09 at a rate of 0.48 job positions
(see Table 2) because APE job openings in phase 2 are more than
that in phase 1 (see Table 3).
We can therefore say that the APE job market in higher education
has grown over the past 34 years. However, this growing job market
was not primarily contributed by APE first priority job openings in
which APE was required as the primary responsibility. In fact, it
was primarily contributed by APE second priority job openings in
which APE was required as a secondary responsibility. This finding
can be clearly seen in Table 2. The fitted regression line based on
the yearly proportions of APE first priority job openings shows a
decreasing trend, which was decreased by 1% (0.01 x 100) of APE
job openings per year based on the fitted regression equation (Y =
– 0.01X + 22.95, R2 = .40, F[1, 32] = 21.47, and p = .00); however,
the fitted regression equation based on the yearly proportions of
APE second priority job openings shows an increasing trend,
which was increased by 12% (0.12 x 100) of the APE job openings
a year based on the fitted regression equation (Y = 0.12X – 22.89,
R2 = .42, F[1, 32] = 23.19, and p = .00).
This finding indicates that APE job openings have required
candidates specializing in one of the other areas but capable of
taking APE as a secondary duty has gradually increased more
than candidates specializing in APE over the years. Why has
this situation happened? No one knows at this point! One of the
possible reasons is that there is a shortage of qualified candidates
specializing in APE available in this market. When colleges and
universities could not find qualified APE candidates in a year, they
would have had to change their requirements by finding candidates
specializing in related areas to take on an APE duty. As a matter
of fact, some studies (e.g., Jansma & Surburge, 1995; Kelly &
Gansneder, 1998; McCubbin & Dunn, 200; Sherrill, 2004; Wenos,
Koslow & Wenos, 1996; Woods & Karp, 1997) have found that the
supply of qualified APE candidates has been too small to meet the
demand of APE openings in higher education, resulting in more
candidates specializing in related areas being employed in this
market.
It should also be noted that in the employment market of APE
careers in higher education, not only candidates specializing in other
areas should be ready to take APE as a part of their job duty, but
also candidates specializing in APE should be prepared to take one
or more other areas as their responsibility. As presented in Table 4,
there are a total of 15 other related areas that were included in APE
job openings. Among these related areas, candidates for taking
APE positions would be most likely to take their responsibility in
physical education methods (33.33%), motor behavior and control
(17.52%), health and wellness (9.12%), test, measurement and
evaluation (7.4%), biomechanics and kinesiology (6.98%), and
exercise physiology and fitness (6.71%). This finding supports the
results obtained by Zhang et al (1999) in which these related areas
were the top five areas announced in APE job openings.
In conclusion, the employment market for APE careers in higher
education has continually grown since 1975. APE job openings
have increased by 0.48 APE job opening per academic year. The
increase of the employment market has been primarily contributed
by APE second priority job openings that perhaps resulted from
the supply of candidates specializing in APE being too small to
meet the demand of the APE market in higher education. A total of
15 other related areas have been included in the APE job openings.
A candidate for an APE position is expected to teach one or more
other area(s) such as physical education methods, motor behavior
and control, health wellness education, test, measurement and
evaluation, biomechanics and kinesiology, and/or exercise
physiology and fitness.
References
Dunn, J.M., & McCubbin, J.A. (1991). Preparation of leadership personnel
in adapted physical education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 8,
128-135.
Federal Register, August, 23, 1977, PL 94-142, the Education for
Handicapped Children Act.
Jansma, P., & Surburge, P. (1995). Ph.D. competency guidelines and
adapted physical education professional preparation in the United
States. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 12, 307-322.
Kelly, L. E., & Gansneder, B. (1998). Preparation and job demographics
of adapted physical educators in the United States. Adapted Physical
Activity Quarterly, 15, 141-154.
McCubbin, J.A., & Dunn, J.M. (2000). Preparation of leadership personnel
in adapted physical education: A follow-up study. Adapted Physical
Activity Quarterly, 17, 371-381.
Sherrill, C., (2004). Adapted physical education, recreation, and sport:
Crossdisciplinary and lifetime. Dubuque, IW: WCB/McGraw-Hill.
Sindelar, P. T., Buck, G. H., Carpenter, S., & Watanabe, A. K. (1993).
Supply and demand of leadership personnel in special education: A
follow-up study with analysis of failed searches. Teacher Education
and Special Education, 16(3), 240-248.
Thomas, J. R., & Nelson, J. K. (1996). Research methods in physical
activity (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: human Kinetics.
Wenos, D. L., Koslow, R. E., & Wenos, J. M. (1996). Employment trends
in kinesiology/physical education higher education. The Physical
Educator, 53(1), 24-27.
Woods, M., & Karp, G.G. (1997). Are you ready for today’s higher
education position? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and
Dance, 68(7), 46-50.
Zhang, J., deLISLE, Lee, & Chen, S. (2006). Analysis of AAHPERD
research abstracts published under special populations from 1968
to 2004. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 23(2), 203-217.
Zhang, J., Joseph, D., & Horvat, M. (1999). Marketable features of an
adapted physical education career in higher education. Adapted
Physical Activity Quarterly, 16, 178-186. ■
Copyright of ICHPER — SD Journal of Research in Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport & Dance is
the property of International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport & Dance (ICHPER-SD)
and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright
holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Skills for the Social Sciences

Referral assignment 19/20

Assignment one

Part one (approx. 500 words)

 

  • What are the different academic writing styles and why are they important?
  • Describe the search process using discover.

 

Part two (approx. 1000 words)

Pick a topic of interest e.g Youth Crime, Disability and Employment, Childhood obesity.

  1. Introduce the topic
  2. Identify a minimum of six articles, three MUST be quantitative, and three MUST be qualitative. Discuss each article and their contribution to research. You must identify the type of research i.e. is it positivistic or anti-positivistic, introduced the research, described the methods used, described the results and their findings. You may also highlight any strengths and weaknesses of the studies.

Part three (approx. 500 words)

Conclusion: synthesize the findings discussed above; highlight any similarities between the findings, and any gaps for further research and investigation.

 

 

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