DNA Structure Assignment | Essay Help Services

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DNA Structure

  • DNA is the genetic material of inheritance, growth and development.  Although it remained a mystery for several years, Edwin Chargaff, Rosalind Franklin, James Watson, Francis Crick and many others contributed to finding the evidence that solved this DNA puzzle.
  1. Read and take notes on 16.1 in the textbook.
  2. Submit a 500 (minimum) word essay that describes the work of the four scientists mentioned above and their contributions to finding the structure of DNA.
  3. Include the following terms; Edwin Chargaff, thymine, adenine, cytosine, guanine, Chargaff’s Rules, Rosalind Franklin, x-ray crystallography, width of nitrogenous base pairs, photo 51, James Watson, Francis Crick, double helix, Maurice Wilkins, anitparallel, sugar/phosphate backbone, purine, pyrimidine , monomer, polymer and nucleotides.


Rosalind Franklin’s Legacy


  1. Women in STEM

These videos explore Rosalind Franklin’s contributions to STEM and the prejudices she encountered as a woman in a male-dominated field. Franklin is a text-book example of the struggle of women in STEM. Her story can inspire students to better understand the challenges faced by women in STEM and to advocate for change for all people in STEM.

  1. Watch the TWO (2) videos in this link.

https://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/watson18-sci-wstem/women-in-stem-prejudice-and-progress/ (Links to an external site.)

  1. Write a 350 word (minimum).

Your post should focus on how the exclusion of women from STEM fields may have and continue to hamper the progress of science by reducing the perspectives brought to scientific research. Emphasize that students should explore how improved gender and racial equality in STEM would benefit society as a whole. Students should explore how their agent of change could be applied to further benefit women in STEM and society at large.

  • Describe at least one challenge Rosalind Franklin faced because she was female working in a male dominated field.
  • Why was it considered acceptable at the time for Watson and Crick to use Franklin’s data without consulting her?
  • How did the circumstances surrounding Franklin’s scientific contributions make her death especially tragic?


Structure and Function of DNA

Biology is the study of life. Life is formed in a particular way and this structural organization provides functionality for organisms to grow, develop and reproduce.  DNA molecules are the source of all information and heredity that provide all form and function for organisms. Understanding the structure of DNA allows us to study the function of DNA and how it operates as the molecule of heredity and reproduction.

Watch the TWO (2) videos linked below and SUBMIT answers the following questions.

https://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/watson18-sci-dna/dna-structure-and-function/ (Links to an external site.)

  • Describe at least two things the molecule of life needs to be able to do.


  • Identify the component of a molecule of DNA that stores genetic information. Explain why this component stores information.


  • How is hereditary information transmitted through generations? Explain.


  • How did Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty demonstrate that DNA was the hereditary material?

Critical Thinking Questions

  • How many bases (a few, a moderate amount, a lot) are likely needed to code for one gene?


  • Why? How many bases (a moderate amount, a lot, a very large amount, an extremely large amount) are likely needed to contain an entire organism’s hereditary information? Why?


  • How has understanding the structure of DNA opened the door for further scientific discoveries?

DNA Replication

Broken bones require your body to make new bones cells, identical to your other bone cells, to heal and repair the fracture. When you donate blood, your body needs time to regenerate new blood cells before you are able to donate more blood.  This reproduction of somatic cells is completed in the process of mitosis and cell division. For mitosis to occur, your body needs to duplicate or replicate DNA for each cell to have the same set of instructions.  Many enzymes (names typically end with -ase) contribute to DNA replication.

Read 16.2 and submit a well-organized, 250 word (minimum) essay that describes the role of the enzymes helicase, DNA polymerase III, and DNA ligase in DNA replication.  Use the following terms in your essay; helicase, DNA polymerase III, DNA ligase, origin of replication, leading strand, lagging strand, and Okazaki fragments.


DNA Replication II

  1. Read the background essay below.
  2. Watch the following video

https://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.gen.dnaanimation/how-dna-replicates/ (Links to an external site.)

  1. Submit answers to these questions
  • Describe a DNA molecule’s basic shape. What is this called?
  • What are the “building blocks” that DNA molecules are made from?
  • Which DNA bases pair with each other? What part of the DNA molecule do they form?
  • How and why does DNA replicate?


Background Reading

Whether it is a microbe, a rose, or a dolphin, any form of life gets its building and operating instructions from the molecule of life, DNA. DNA comprises the genes and chromosomes that govern the development of an individual organism. Coiled inside the nucleus of the cell, DNA stores all the information needed in reproducing that individual.

The information of life is packaged in genes, the units of heredity, distributed along the chromosomes of an organism; a human being has as many as 30,000 genes, and perhaps more. Each gene contains a coded instruction for making a single protein. The chemical code in which the information is written is stunningly simple, consisting of only four different chemical bases, or nucleotides: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). But various combinations of those four bases—say, A A C G G A C T T A and so on, for thousands of “letters”—can spell out the recipes for tens of thousands of different proteins.

In manufacturing the proteins it needs, the cell uses the gene sequence as a blueprint. A different nucleic acid molecule, known as messenger RNA, makes a copy of the gene sequence and carries it outside the nucleus. The message encoded in the messenger RNA is read by structures called ribosomes, which assemble the protein out of amino acids in the cell’s cytoplasm. Each amino acid is specified by a combination of three of the chemical bases (the A, T, C, and Gs), and the amino acids are put together in a long chain to form the protein. The cell then uses the protein or sends it out of the cell to perform some job for the body.

When a cell divides, it makes a copy of its DNA instructions for the new cell. The twisted double strand structure—the double helix—unwinds and the strands separate. The nucleotides (A, T, G, and C) on each strand pair up with free nucleotides in the nucleus, creating two new strands. But only G can pair with C, and only T can pair with A. Therefore, the order of nucleotides in the original strand specifies the order in the new strand. After each of the old strands is copied in this way, there are two new double-helix molecules, each one containing one strand it inherited from the original molecule and one newly-formed strand.

Often this copying process makes errors, so that the wrong nucleotide is placed in position. The cell can correct these errors, called mutations, but some inevitably get through. How often these mutations are advantageous, neutral, or harmful to an organism depends on the genes affected and their cellular functions.





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