Covid 19 research paper

Introduction

Covid-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) is a vascular and respiratory contagious disease, which is a result of SARS-Cov-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). This virus is an ongoing epidemic that was first detected in China, a city called Wuhan. Covid-19 has various symptoms; they include loss of taste and smell, difficulty breathing, fever, fatigue, and cough. Coronavirus symptoms start from the first to the fourteenth day after getting exposed to the virus. This essay will intensely discuss the history, signs and symptoms, ways of transmission, diagnosis, prevention, epidemiology, and the prognosis of the disease.

History

Covid-19 is thought of as a natural virus from an animal origin, where humans got it through spillover infection. The first case was identified in Hubei, located in Wuhan, China. According to the research of the initial 41 Coronavirus positive cases, the earliest symptoms onset was from the first of December 2019 (Bruns et al., 2020). Transmission between humans was confirmed by the twentieth of January 2020 by Chinese authorities and WHO. Official Chinese springs claim the virus is linked with the Huanan Seafood Market; the seafood market also ended live animals. The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention director, Mr. Gorge Gao spoke on the twentieth of May 2020 and said that the samples collected from Huanan Seafood tested negative; this shows that Huanan was the earliest super-spreading event but not the initial outbreak site. The virus has been traced to Turin’s and Milan’s wastewater (Bruns et al., 2020).

The virus’s outbreak has numerous theories regarding the origin of the initial/first case, also referred to as patient zero. During Covid-19’s early stages, the cases for individuals testing positive doubled in about eight weeks. On the thirtieth of January, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Covid-19 as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Italy reported its first case on the thirty-first of January 2020; the transmissions were from two Chinese tourists (Bhidayasiri et al., 2020). The WHO considered the pandemic’s active center to be Europe as of march thirteen, 2020. The number of deaths in Italy rapidly increased, and they overtook China on the nineteenth of March 2020. The United States overtook both Italy and China on the number of positive cases

Signs and Symptoms

Covid-19 symptoms are variable; however, they include fever and a cough. Individuals carrying similar infections might contain different symptoms, where their symptoms might change within a certain period. For instance, an individual might have a higher fever, fatigue, and cough; another individual might have a low fever within the early stages with the virus; then develop breathing difficulties after a week. However, in individuals without prior throat, nose, and ears disorder, the combined loss of smell and taste are associated with Coronavirus with a 95% specificity. Among individuals who have shown the virus’s symptoms, one individual among five might become very ill and experience breathing difficulties.

There are emergency symptoms; they include breathing difficulties, sudden confusion, persistent chest pressure or pain, bluish lips or face, and walking difficulties. Emergency symptoms require immediate medical intervention (Bhidayasiri et al., 2020). Further virus development can result in various complications such as kidney failure, septic shock, pneumonia, sepsis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The incubation period is familiar with many infections. The incubation period is the time difference between the first infection time and first symptom appearance. The medium of the incubation period is between four and five days. Many symptomatic individuals get their symptoms within 2-7 days after the individual is exposed to the virus.

Transmission

Human transmission spreads via the respiratory route; this occurs when an infected individual sneeze, breathes, talks, coughs, or sings. Aerosols or respiratory droplets exhaled by a Covid-19 positive individual might infect other close contact individuals through the aerosols or respiratory droplets getting into their bodies through their eyes, nose, or mouth. Airborne transmission might mainly occur in crowded places or less ventilated indoor spaces like nightclubs or restaurants.

Direct contact with an infected individual, such as physical intimacy or kissing, quickly transmits the virus. Indirect contact can also result in Covid-19, whereby it might happen when an individual touches contaminated objects or surfaces then touches their eyes, nose, or mouth. Research about the transmission of the virus through wastewater, feces, breast milk, drinking water, urine, mother to child during pregnancy, or disease vectors from animals is still ongoing. Covid-19 is less infectious than measles but very infectious compared to influenza. Research shows that an infected individual can transmit the virus to two or three people; covid-19 mostly spread in groups. Individuals remain infectious for about 7-12 days; in severe cases, the infection remains for two weeks. A medical scientist reported the first evidence of reinfection in October 2020.

Prevention

A vaccine for the virus is not anticipated until 2021, which might be the earliest the vaccine might be introduced. The United States course of action does not endorse any medication outside the background of a medical trial. There are various prophylactic measures apart from vaccination used to manage the epidemic and prevent it from getting to the peak; this process is referred to as flattening of the curve (Luo, 2020). Numerous preventive measures are in place to decrease the chances of getting infected.

The measures include wearing masks when in public places, maintaining physical distance, remaining at home, washing hands using soap and water for approximately 20 seconds, avoiding crowded locations, ventilating indoor places, exercising adequate respiratory sanitation, and avoiding direct contact with the mouth, nose, or eyes with un-sanitized hands (Luo, 2020). The individual confirmed to be positive with the viruses should remain at their respective homes; they should also contact the hospital before vising. They should wear a mask every time they are among people. They should also wash their hand regularly with soap and water.

The doctors can prevent themselves from getting the virus from their patients through PPEs (Personal Protective Equipment). Protective gears improve user-satisfaction (Luo, 2020). Among other modifications, adding tabs to the PPEs might decrease contamination risks during doffing and donning. Carrying out an evidence-based doffing and donning like a one-step gown and glove removal strategy, providing oral guidelines while doffing and donning, using glove disinfection, and double gloving might enhance safety for medical professionals.

Impact of Covid-19 On Tourism

With the outbreak of the virus, traveling and tourism are the sectors that are affected most, whereby the airplanes are on the ground due to travel restrictions, and the restaurants are closed. Covid-19 has affected international tourism, where their sector has experienced a 58%-78% reduction of international tourists’ arrivals. The decrease of about 67 million tourists in the sector will place the jobs of about 120 million individuals at risk. Among other crises that have affected the international tourism sector, the impact of Covid-19 is much worse.

Impact of Covid-19 On the Global Economy

Covid-19 has impacted the global economy via three channels, the financial impact on financial markets and firms, market and supply chain disruption, and a direct effect on production. Covid-19 has affected financial markets and firms through temporary disruptions of production or inputs, affecting firms with insufficient liquidity. Covid-19 has affected global production due to the compulsory shutdown (Luo, 2020). With the shutdown, the production process will stop or will be very slow. Production has been affected by Covid-19, whereby the level of goods for exportation has reduced; thus, the epidemic has affected production, affecting the global economy. Covid-19 has affected market disruption and supply chain, where it is as a result of most manufacturing firms relying on imported inputs (Luo, 2020). The supply chain has been affected by transportation restrictions. The disruption might significantly affect medium-sized and small firms. Generally, the business that generates revenue through tourism and traveling have faced unrecoverable losses.

Impact of Covid-19 on Agriculture

Approximately 80% of populations depend on agriculture for their source of revenue. The sector of agriculture has a crucial role in swaying migratory patterns. Transhumant pastoral communities are likely to experience the hard hit by Covid-19, whereby they depend on seasonal livestock movement for their income and food (Walker et al., 2020). The disruption of western and traditional patterns will bring about tensions between pastoralists and residents, resulting in conflicts that will lead to increased food insecurity and poverty.

Global statistics of Covid-19

Covid-19 is still increasing in sixty-four countries. Been a current pandemic, it has infected approximately 47,470,001, killed about 1,213,001, and has had an approximate recovery of 31,639,387 (World Health Organization, 2020). The United States reports the highest infections and deaths daily, followed by India. Research claims that the pandemic can only end when it cannot be detected anywhere within the globe. Forty-five countries are close to the highest of their contamination curve.

Myths about Covid-19

One of the myths I have encountered is that the virus is just like other flu; both Covid-19 and flu cause respiratory diseases. Covid-19 is different from other flu because its virus attaches with receptors in the airways’ lower part, resulting in dry cough, which is associated with fatigue and fever. The other myth surrounding the epidemic is that the virus only affects older adults. Older people are more prone to Covid-19 complications; however, young people are not entirely secure (World Health Organization, 2020). A study that collected data about the effect of Covid-19 between ages claimed that about 29% of individuals contaminated with the virus are between 20 and 44. Another myth is that we cannot do anything until the invention of a virus; facts debunk this myth. The vaccine has about twelve or eighteen months away; there are other things we can do to delay the infection rate; one way is using medications to treat Covid-19 symptoms (World Health Organization, 2020).

The other myth widely spread is that people designed the virus; this can b debunked because other coronaviruses have resulted in health issues in recent years. Moreover, particular viruses from the bat population are genetically adept at causing a pandemic. About 50% of Americans think people design the virus. Another myth circulating is that scientists and the government are hiding data from the masses, distrusting the authority of an institution like CDC, and which at such a time can be problematic. Distrusting the health sector and government can lead to individuals ignoring the guideline they are provided by the people they have failed to trust. When people ignore provided guidelines by the health sector and government, there might be a rapid rise in infection rates; thus, this myth much is debunked for people to maintain the usual discipline and follow the provided guidelines.

How Covid-19 might end

According to Guido Vanham, the virus might never end, arguing that the virus is here to stay, where we can only do away with it through eradicating it. The only possible way of ending this crisis is through vaccination, which is delivered to every human being. For diseases like smallpox, vaccination has been used to prevent transmission (Singhal, 2020). Guido argued that way is because the virus causing the epidemic is well known, the coronaviruses. The viruses reappear seasonally, so we are yet to see if it will have such an impact. The ending of the epidemic relies on infection rates (Singhal, 2020). The epidemic might also end when the virus gradually becomes destroyed when there is a warmer environment in the summer periods. Another cause for the epidemic to end is developing herd immunity, where the disease cannot be transmitted effectively. The final chance of how Covid-19 might end is if the virus develops to be an endemic virus, which will be like flu or the common cold.

Conclusion

The virus is not an airborne disease, but it can be transmitted through the air in crowded places. Coronavirus has had the most significant effect on international tourism, where it has compromised about 62 million jobs. The disease has killed about 1.2 million humans; however, about 31.5 million humans have recovered from the infection. The epidemic virus, being known, coronaviruses, might be done away with vaccination. There is a measure provided by the World Health Organization, whereby, when appropriately exercised, an individual can protect himself/herself from contracting the virus. The virus has spread and has affected and killed many individuals all over the world.

References

Bruns, D. P., Kraguljac, N. V., & Bruns, T. R. (2020). COVID-19: facts, cultural considerations, and risk of stigmatization. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 31(4), 326. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324134/

Bhidayasiri, R., Virameteekul, S., Kim, J. M., Pal, P. K., & Chung, S. J. (2020). COVID-19: an early review of its global impact and considerations for Parkinson’s disease patient care. Journal of movement disorders, 13(2), 105. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7280938/

Luo, J. (2020). When Will COVID-19 End? Data-Driven Prediction. Singapore University of Technology and Design (http://www. sutd. Edu. sg). Retrieved from https://su HYPERLINK “https://sunday.com.pk/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/COVID19PredictionPaper.pdf.pdf” HYPERLINK “https://sunday.com.pk/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/COVID19PredictionPaper.pdf.pdf” HYPERLINK “https://sunday.com.pk/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/COVID19PredictionPaper.pdf.pdf”nday.com.pk/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/COVID19PredictionPaper.pdf.pdf

Walker, P., Whittaker, C., Watson, O., Beguelin, M., Ainslie, K., Bhatia, S., … & Cucunuba Perez, Z. (2020). Report 12: The global impact of COVID-19 and strategies for mitigation and suppression. Retrieved from https://dsprdpub.cc.ic.ac.uk:8443/handle/10044/1/77735

World Health Organization. (, 2020). Coronavirus disease (‎ COVID-19)‎. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/336034/nCoV-weekly-sit HYPERLINK “https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/336034/nCoV-weekly-sitrep11Oct20-eng.pdf” HYPERLINK “https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/336034/nCoV-weekly-sitrep11Oct20-eng.pdf” HYPERLINK “https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/336034/nCoV-weekly-sitrep11Oct20-eng.pdf”rep11Oct20-eng.pdf

Singhal, T. (2020). A review of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 1-6. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10. HYPERLINK “https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6” HYPERLINK “https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6” HYPERLINK “https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6″1007/s12098-020-03263-6

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