On page 280, your author writes “A number of formal theories have been developed to understand differences in individual needs. Some of the classic theories include Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory, and Adams Equity Theory.”
Figure 11-3 on Page 280 summarizes the most widely known of the classic motivation theories.
Further studies have shown the amount of effort an individual will put into an activity depends on three factors: (1) Expectancy, (2) Instrumentality and (3) Valence. For example, expectancy refers to a salesperson’s belief that “If I put in more effort, I should expect a greater outcome.”
See Figure 11-6 on Page 284 and read the three paragraphs below it, and answer this question: What role can the sales manager play to influence the outcomes of salespeople’s activities? Describe activities that the sales manager can participate in as well as suggest conversations between the sales manager and the salesperson.