Behavior graphed using Precision Teaching

How often is behavior graphed when using Precision Teaching?A.dailyB.weeklyC.biweeklyD.monthly

A.daily

Which of the following is used in Precision Teaching?A.a time-series chartB.a graphC.a scatter plotD.a standard celeration chart

D.a standard celeration chart

Direct Instruction is based on the notion that, in order for disadvantaged students to catch up to their peers, ______.A.teaching has to be faster, to cover more in less timeB.the pace of teaching has to be slowed downC.the pace of teaching has to be determined by the individual studentD.the pace of teaching has to be determined by the teacher

A.teaching has to be faster, to cover more in less time

Which of the following is a component of Precision Teaching?A.graphed data are a shared among teachers and studentsB.graphed data are reviewed only by teachersC.graphed data are shared among teachers and administratorsD.graphed data are not shared with the student

A.graphed data are a shared among teachers and students

Which statement below best represents the philosophy of Precision Teaching?A.The student is to blame.B.The teacher is to blame.C.The child knows best.D.The teacher knows best.

C.The child knows best.

Which of the following is NOT an analysis that must be conducted to use Direct Instruction?A.the analysis of behaviorB.the analysis of communicationsC.the analysis of learningD.the analysis of knowledge systems

C.the analysis of learning

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic feature of Direct Instruction?A.the use of scripted presentations by the teacherB.learning in small groupsC.students responding in unison to the teacher’s questionsD.slow pacing

D.slow pacing

Accuracy plus speed of performance is called what in Precision Teaching?A.EfficiencyB.EffectivenessC.MasteryD.Fluency

D.Fluency

In Direct Instruction, a strategy that uses the smallest possible number of examples to produce the largest possible amount of learning is called what?A.a common caseB.a general caseC.an optimal caseD.the simplest case

B.a general case

Precision Teaching requires that the behaviors to be graphed be ______.A.countableB.visibleC.measurableD.reliable

A.countable

Which is an example of a behavioral cusp?A.learning to say “dog”B.learning to make a sandwichC.learning to put on a shirtD.learning to speak

D.learning to speak

In Person Centered Planning, who may be an indirect stakeholder?A.the behavior change agentB.close family membersC.the individual being servedD.all of the above

B.close family members

In Person Centered Planning, who is the direct stakeholder?A.the behavior change agentB.the person closest to the individual being servedC.the individual being servedD.all of the above

C.the individual being served

The recombination of existing behavior repertoires in new ways to produce more complex behaviors is called ______.A.generativenessB.pivotal respondingC.Person centered planningD.a behavioral cusp

A.generativeness

Irene loves to read and tell stories. She lives alone with her mother and has very few opportunities to interact act with individuals her age. Irene’s social worker arranges for her to join a book club. Now Irene meets weekly with peers to discuss the book they are all reading. As a result, Irene has made many new friends, whom she speaks with on the phone almost daily, and been invited to several social activities outside of the book club. This is an example of which of the following?A.person centered planningB.generativenessC.pivotal respondingD.cumulative-hierarchical learning

B.generativeness

Larry is very shy and has no friends, but he loves gardening. Which of the following would probably be a behavioral cusp for Larry?A.buying him new garden suppliesB.having Larry join a gardening clubb. teaching Larry how to sewC.Taking Larry to a plant nursery

B.having Larry join a gardening clubb. teaching Larry how to sew

In Person Centered Planning, friends fall within the group of individuals called what?A.Members of the immediate communityB.Members of the extended communityC.direct stakeholdersD.indirect stakeholders

A.Members of the immediate community

When selecting a behavioral cusp, practitioners should prioritize which of the following?A.behaviors that the individual will be able to perform accurately in the training settingB.behaviors that will limit the individual’s access to potentially harmful situationsC.behaviors that will increase the individual’s access to new reinforcers, contingencies and environmentsD.behaviors that will increase access to specific reinforcers from specific individuals

C.behaviors that will increase the individual’s access to new reinforcers, contingencies and environments

Which statement is NOT true about behavioral cusps?A.they expose individuals to new sources of reinforcementB.they can render prior repertoires obsoleteC.they are themselves complex behaviorsD.they can produce complex behavior change

C.they are themselves complex behaviors

Which of the following should be considered when determining potential behavioral cusps?A.the degree to which the outcomes of a given behavioral cusp will provided benefits to family members of the individualB.if the behavioral cusp will compete with inappropriate behaviorsC.if the social validity of the behavioral cuspD.all of the above

D.all of the above

Abby points to an apple on the counter. Her mother asks Abby, “what do you want.” Abby does not respond. Her mother then says, “Say apple.” Abby’s mother has used which of the following prompting procedures.A.least to mostB.most to leastC.guidedD.none

A.least to most

Tracy’s mother wants to use incidental teaching to get Tracy to request her favorite toys. What should Tracy’s mother do to arrange the environment so that Tracy is more likely to request her favorite toys?V.put all of Tracy’s toys within reach.B.give Tracy access to her toys for a limited amount of time each dayN.put Tracy’s favorite toys within sight, but out of her reach.M.put Tracy’s favorite toys out of sight.

N.put Tracy’s favorite toys within sight, but out of her reach.

What is the first step in preparing for incidental teaching?A.Arrange the environmentB.Select appropriate goalsC.Train others to use incidental teachingD.Promote initations

B.Select appropriate goals

Andy walks into the kitchen, where his mother is, and points to the cookie jar. What should his mother do to use incidental teaching?A.give Andy a cookieB.give Andy a cookie, then tell him, “Andy, say cookie.”C.do not give Andy a cookie until he says “I want a cookie”D.Ask Andy, “what do you want?”

D.Ask Andy, “what do you want?”

Which is true about incidental teaching?A.Opportunities for incidental teaching can be maximized by careful planning and arranging of the environment.B.Opportunities for incidental teaching cannot be planned, as they occur spontaneously.C.Opportunities for incidental teaching are always planned and never occur spontaneously.D.Opportunities for incidental teaching can be maximized by placing the child’s preferred items his/her within reach.

A.Opportunities for incidental teaching can be maximized by careful planning and arranging of the environment.

One of the arguments made in favor of teaching sign language rather than the use of aided communication is that ______.A.sign language involves unconditional discriminations while aided systems require conditional discriminations.B.sign language involves conditional discriminations while aided systems require unconditional discriminations.C.sign language involves no discrimination while aided systems require conditional discriminations.D.sign language involves discriminations while aided systems require no discriminations.

A.sign language involves unconditional discriminations while aided systems require conditional discriminations.

Which clear advantage of using aided communication (such as pictures of line drawings) over sign language?A.Aided communication systems are more easily accessible to the user.B.Aided communication systems are learned more quickly.C.Aided communication systems are less costly.D.Aided communication systems are more readily understood by others who are untrained.

D.Aided communication systems are more readily understood by others who are untrained.

Tina uses sign language to communicate. Which statement is true about Tina’s communication?A.Tina is using supplemented alternative communication.B.Tina is using unaided alternative communication.C.Tina is using aided alternative communication.D.Tina is using augmented alternative communication.

B.Tina is using unaided alternative communication.

Which is an example of functional communication?A.Ali learns to request her favorite toy during her language training sessions.B.Ray learns to request his favorite toy during her language training sessions. He then labels (tacts) his favorite toy when asked, “what is this?”C.Tim’s does not label (tact) living animals such as dogs, cats and birds, but he can label (tact) pictures of many animals.D.John learns to ask for water during language training. He then asks for water at home and when he goes to a restaurant.

D.John learns to ask for water during language training. He then asks for water at home and when he goes to a restaurant.

Which statement is true about the alternatives for learning functional communication?A.There is strong evidence that sign language is superior to aided communication.B.There is strong evidence that aided communication is superior to sign language.C.There is evidence to support the use of both sign language and aided communication.D.There is no evidence that either sing language or aided communication can significantly improve functional communication.

C.There is evidence to support the use of both sign language and aided communication.

What should one do if problem behavior occurs during incidental teaching?a.Quickly and give the child the desired item to deescalate the problem behavior.b.Terminate instruction and redirect the child to another activity or use procedures to reduce the problem behavior.c.Continue the instruction while ignoring the problem behavior.D.Terminate the instruction once the child has stopped engaging in the problem behavior.

b.Terminate instruction and redirect the child to another activity or use procedures to reduce the problem behavior.

Which statement about Incidental teaching is true?A.IT can be used to teach receptive language skills, but not expressive language skills.B.IT can be used to teach expressive language skills, but not receptive language skills.C.IT can be used to teach both receptive and expressive language skills.D.IT can be used to teach receptive language skills only after expressive language skills have been learned.

C.IT can be used to teach both receptive and expressive language skills.

One of the arguments in favor of using aided communication systems (such as pictures or line drawings) is ______.A.pictures have less iconicity and require less physical effort to useB.pictures have greater iconicity and require less physical effort to useC.pictures have greater iconicity and require more physical effort to useD.pictures have greater iconicity and require the same amount of less physical effort to use

B.pictures have greater iconicity and require less physical effort to use

Which is an example of using functional aided communication?A.Tim takes a picture book with him wherever he goes. He points to pictures in the book to request desired items or activities.B.Rob asks for “drink” whenever he is thirsty.C.Sally make the sing for “eat” whenever she is hungry.D.Chris has a picture book. His aide demonstrates how to point to a picture of a playground when he wants to go outside. Chris then imitates his aid by pointing to the picture.

A.Tim takes a picture book with him wherever he goes. He points to pictures in the book to request desired items or activities.

Which is a clear advantage to using manual signs over graphic displays or symbols?A.manual signs are more portableB.manual sings are more permanentC.manual signs can be used when the listener is at a distanceD.all of the above

D.all of the above

Which is an example of a conditioned establishing operation?A.After Jane jogs three miles, drinks a tall glass of water.B.Tim went to bed very late the night before. When he gets home from school, he takes a nap.C.Randy skipped lunch. By dinner time, he is the first one at the table and serves himself abundantly.D.Alice is making muffins and realizes she has no sugar. She asks her neighbor for a cup of sugar.

D.Alice is making muffins and realizes she has no sugar. She asks her neighbor for a cup of sugar.

Which is an example of a conditional discrimination?A.Tim sees a ball, points to it and says, “give me ball.”B.Jane places ball on the table in front of Jeff and says, “touch the ball.” No other items are on the table. “touch the ball.” Jeff touches the ball.C.Daria sees Kim eating a cookie, and says “I want a cookie.”D.Greg places three color cards in front of Lisa and asks, “which one is green?” Lisa touches the green card.

D.Greg places three color cards in front of Lisa and asks, “which one is green?” Lisa touches the green card.

The procedure for contriving a motivating operation discussed by Rosales & Rehfeldt (2007) is known as the ______ procedure.A.continued chainB.interruptedC.interrupted chainD.backward chain

C.interrupted chain

According to Skinner, mands are functionaly under the control of what?A.aversive stimulationB.deprivationC.both of the aboveD.none of the above

C.both of the above

A mand is a verbal operant that is maintained by what?A.positive reinforcementB.the specific stimulus (item, event or activity) requestedC.social reinforcersD.automatic reinforcement

B.the specific stimulus (item, event or activity) requested

Which of the following is a self-management strategy?A.Arranging contingencies for yourselfB.Writing a contract with yourselfC.Telling yourself what to doD.All of the above

D.All of the above

Tim runs one mile each day, but wants to run 5 miles per day. He implements a self-management plan in which, if he runs 5 miles, he can play his favorite video game, but if he does not run 5 miles he cannot play any video games. Today, Tim ran 4 miles. He played is favorite video game, because although he did not reach the goal, he ran significantly more than usual. Tim engaged in ______.A.self-managementB.self-praiseC.decreasing response effortD.short-circuiting the contingency

D.short-circuiting the contingency

One goal of self-management is to ______.A.help individuals overcome the influence of immediate consequences for undesired behavior and choose delayed reinforcement over immediate reinforcementB.help individuals respond to immediate reinforcement over delayed reinforcementC.help individuals effectively arrange contingencies of reinforcement to influence the behavior of anotherD.help individuals make an agreement with themselves to do or not do something

A.help individuals overcome the influence of immediate consequences for undesired behavior and choose delayed reinforcement over immediate reinforcement

In a self-management program, it is important to set a goal that is ______.A.challengingB.hardC.easyD.achievable

D.achievable

Which of the following is NOT a step in a self-management plan?A.Identify a plan managerB.Make the decision to engage in self-managementC.Conduct a functional assessmentD.Evaluate change

A.Identify a plan manager

The term ‘establishing operation’ was replaced with which term below?A.motivating operationB.abolishing operationC.conditional operationD.non-establishing operation

A.motivating operation

Which is an example of an emergent relation?A.Tim learns point to a red card when asked, “which one is red?” He also learns to read the word “red.” Later, without additional training, Tim says “red” when shown a red item and asked “what color is this?”B.Tim learns point to a red card when asked, “which one is red?” He also learns to read the word “red.”C.Tim learns point to a red card when asked, “which one is red?” He also learns to read the word “red” and say “red” when shown a red item and asked “what color is this?D.Tim learns the names of several colors and can point to each correctly.

A.Tim learns point to a red card when asked, “which one is red?” He also learns to read the word “red.” Later, without additional training, Tim says “red” when shown a red item and asked “what color is this?”

An establishing operation in which one stimulus increases the reinforce value of another stimulus is know as a(n) ______?A.CEOB.transitive CEOC.Conditioned CEOD.untrained CEO

B.transitive CEO

Which of the following may be used in a self-management program?A.Removing the SD for the undesirable behaviorB.Decreasing the response effort for the desirable behaviorC.Arranging an establishing operation for the desirable behaviorD.All of the above

D.All of the above

Tina wants to be more productive at work. Each day on her drive to work she repeats to herself several times what she should and should not do at work to be more productive. Which statement is true?A.Tina is using a self-management strategy called self-instruction.B.Tina is using a self-management strategy called self-praise.C.Tina is using a self-management strategy called goal-setting.D.Tina is not using a self-management strategy

A.Tina is using a self-management strategy called self-instruction.

A token economy is:A.A natural and constructive device for establishing behaviorsB.Intrusive and should really be used only when a behavior problem is severeC.Artificial by nature and needs to be carefully designed and implemented after more natural and /or simpler methods have been consideredD.An effective tool in aiding behavioral change and should be one of the first considerations when searching for a technique

C.Artificial by nature and needs to be carefully designed and implemented after more natural and /or simpler methods have been considered

Back-up reinforcers:A.Are conditioned reinforcers, not unconditionedB.Allow the tokens to become conditioned reinforcersC.Are natural reinforcers, not intrusiveD.Play a minor role in a token economy

B.Allow the tokens to become conditioned reinforcers

Response cost is an effective reductive method in a token economy, but may occasion:A.Imitative behaviorB.Aggressive behaviorC.Neurotic behaviorD.None of the above

B.Aggressive behavior

Which of the following does NOT support the argument that peers can be a good choice for involvement in behavioral change programs as described in your text?A.Peers are able to consistently monitor and respond to target behaviorsB.Peers provide the natural context for teaching social skillsC.Peers involvement more readily promotes generalization and maintenanceD.Peers can utilize group contingencies more effectively than teachers/staff

A.Peers are able to consistently monitor and respond to target behaviors

Dependent and interdependent group contingencies have been shown to promote:A.Peer tutoringB.A significant increase in positive peer comments to one anotherC.Improved academic performanceD.Both a and c

D.Both a and c

New directions for Direct Instruction include:A.Computer-assisted instructionB.Low-cost networkingC.Video disk courseworkD.All of the aboveE.None of the above

D.All of the above

Which of the following is NOT a basic consideration in model selection?A.SimilarityB.CompetenceC.RehearsalD.Prestige

C.Rehearsal

John doesn’t go directly to his seat after recess. Susie does. Jon’s teacher wants to teach him to sit down immediately. She compliments Susie when Susie sits down immediately. The procedure used on Jon’s behavior is called?A.Differential reinforcementB.FadingC.ModelingD.Positive reinforcement

C.Modeling

Models are more likely to be imitated who are prestigious. Prestigious models during high-school are most likely to be:A.The football starB.A cheer-leaderC.A peer who receives an above average portion of reinforcers from peers and supervisorsD.The campus spelling B winner

C.A peer who receives an above average portion of reinforcers from peers and supervisors

A rule stipulated by a classroom teacher is students who have a question are to raise their hand and wait quietly to be called upon. The teachers, though, frequently call on those who call-out their questions. The calling-out is probably:A.Rule governedB.Due to proprioceptive cuesC.Contingency shapedD.Due to instructional demand

C.Contingency shaped

On numerous occasions, group contingencies have been used successfully to facilitate learning. There are, however, certain problems that may arise. Which of the following is a problem you will most likely encounter?A.Clients refuse to help each otherB.Clients may aid a competing groupC.Clients may lose interest quickly and refuse to participateD.Clients may begin to threaten or punish their own group members

D.Clients may begin to threaten or punish their own group members

A rule stipulated by a classroom teacher is students who have a question are to raise their hand and wait quietly to be called upon. The teachers, though, frequently call on those who call-out their questions. The calling-out is probably:A.Rule governedB.Due to proprioceptive cuesC.Contingency shapedD.Due to instructional demand

C.Contingency shaped

Peer tutoring programs:A.Appear weakest in facilitating generalization of learned skillsB.Result in increased tensions between student tutors and tuteesC.Require an increase in teacher interventionD.Can be as effective as one-to-one teachers instruction

D.Can be as effective as one-to-one teachers instruction

One potential disadvantage of interdependent or dependent group contingencies is that:A.Individuals become more concerned with their own performanceB.Much more teacher/staff time is required to train the group membersC.It is difficult to establish objective reinforcement criteriaD.Group members may pressure nonconforming members

D.Group members may pressure nonconforming members

One means of strengthening imitative responding of a target behavior is:A.Utilizing a beautiful modelB.Reinforcing responses that relate nicely to the target behaviorC.Ensuring simplicity of the behavior to be modeledD.None of the above

C.Ensuring simplicity of the behavior to be modeled

Which of the following is an example of the “show” or modeling procedure?A.Demonstrating how to pick up a ball with your left handB.Instructing them to “pick up the ball with their left hand.”C.Giving them written instructions informing them how to pick up a ball with their left handD.All of the above

A.Demonstrating how to pick up a ball with your left hand

Which of the following is NOT a basic tactic for promoting imitation?A.Present verbal instructions and rulesB.Provide a rationaleC.Reinforce imitative behaviorD.Highlight dissimilarities

D.Highlight dissimilarities

Individuals are _____ sensitive to unannounced changes in contingencies that were formulated through contingency shaping over those acquired through rule governance.A.LessB.EquallyC.MoreD.All the above, depending on the situation

C.More

Dependent groups use which of the following methods to bring about results?A.Treat all individuals the sameB.Treat all individuals differentlyC.Rely on one or several specific group member(s)D.None of the above

C.Rely on one or several specific group member(s)

Peer-influence strategies incorporate the use of peers as a facilitating tool in group contingences. Which of the following is an example of a peer-influenced strategy?A.Independent group contingenciesB.Interdependent group contingenciesC.Dependent group contingenciesD.Both b and c

D.Both b and c

The manufacturing division of the Top Quality Company wanted to strive for error-free products. Management decided to provide alLmembers in the division with a special bonus if the three worst performing units improved quality by 20%. What group contingency was used?A.Dependent group contingenciesB.Independent group contingenciesC.Interdependent group contingenciesD.Peer-mediated strategies

A.Dependent group contingencies

Interdependent groups:A.Treat all participants in the group differentlyB.Select one individual as their representativeC.Treat all participants in the group as a single unitD.None of the above

C.Treat all participants in the group as a single unit

Generalized imitation involves:A.Imitating in both familiar and novel contextsB.Imitating in familiar contextsC.Imitating in novel contextsD.Imitating the modeled behavior that receives reinforcement

A.Imitating in both familiar and novel contexts

Discreet trail training is best combined with ___________ to promote generalization.A.Incidental teachingB.Video modelingC.ReinforcementD.Interdependent contingencies

A.Incidental teaching

An array of studies has utilized token economies to induce behavior change. What role does the actual token play?A.That of an exchangeable reinforcerB.That of an unconditioned reinforcerC.That of a conditioned reinforcerD.A and CE.All of the above

D.A and C

It is important to select multiple models because:A.You have a greater chance of including an effective modelB.Multiple models exert greater influence over the behaviorC.Multiple models add to the prestige of the actD.It is not important. A single model is bes

B.Multiple models exert greater influence over the behavior

Which of the following is a technique to help a teacher increase his/her use of modeling?A.Use minor disruptive behaviors as cues to punish the “acting-out” behavior, so the others won’t imitate itB.Use minor disruptive behaviors as cues to look for appropriate behavior and reinforce itC.Select one model who is very good at the task and use him or her as the class modelD.All of the above

B.Use minor disruptive behaviors as cues to look for appropriate behavior and reinforce it

Mr. B. Novice asks Joe Slow to check with him before leaving for his tutoring session. Five minutes later Mr. B. calls on Joe to score his paper, and, upon looking around, he discovers that Joe has already left. Mr. B. turns to Mrs. B Mod and exclaims (quietly): “Damn it! I’ve seen Joe imitate others who have checked with me before, but he never checks with me when I ask him to do it!” The above indicates that:A.Modeling is an SDr for checking with the teacherB.Directions serve as an SDr for checking with the teacherC.Modeling is an S? for checking with the teacherD.Directions serve as an S? for checking with the teacher

A.Modeling is an SDr for checking with the teacher

Paring positive feedback with the delivery of tokens is done so that social feedback can be used as:A.A conditioned as well as a more powerful natural reinforcerB.An unconditioned reinforcerC.A means of facilitating the acceptance of tokens by the clientsD.None of the above

A.A conditioned as well as a more powerful natural reinforcer

Mr. Light is going to train his top two students to assist him in the actual implementation of a planned behavioral program. Which of the following strategies is Mr. Light utilizing?A.Independent group contingenciesB.Peer-mediated strategiesC.Interdependent group contingenciesD.Dependent group contingencies

B.Peer-mediated strategies

A well-designed token economy would NOT utilize which of the following?A.An array of back-up reinforcersB.Progressively decreasing the duration between the delivery of tokens and their exchange for back-up reinforcersC.Pairing social praise with the delivery of tokensD.Progressively decreasing the value of tokens

B.Progressively decreasing the duration between the delivery of tokens and their exchange for back-up reinforcers

Before a response cost system can be implemented:A.There needs to be a reserve of tokensB/Rules and fines must be known by all individualsC.A period of time must be allotted for the non-spending of tokens as a cost for their behaviorD.All of the above are neededE.Both a and b are needed

E.Both a and b are needed

Gradually building delay into a token economy:A.Increases response ratesB.Increases resistance to extinctionC.Decreases the value of natural contingenciesD.Does none of the above

B.Increases resistance to extinction

Which of the following is NOT a useful method for introducing delay into a token economy?A.Increasing the size and complexity of the responses needed to earn a tokenB.Increasing the delay between the person’s response and the delivery of tokensC.Increasing the duration between token accumulation and exchangeD.Increasing the reinforcing value of tokens slowly.

D.Increasing the reinforcing value of tokens slowly.

Based on your knowledge of modeling and staff training when starting your consultation to have maximum impact institution-wide, you should NOT select consultees that ____________.A.Are strongly motivatedB.Others listen to and ask for their adviceC.Are in real need of help because they lack skillsD.Are willing to be observed and meet with your frequently

C.Are in real need of help because they lack skills

People may follow inaccurate rules (not receiving the expected reinforcement from their behavior) because:A.The rules are concretely specifiedB.They are less aware of the direct contingenciesC.The Premack principle is at workD.A behavioral contrast condition exists

B.They are less aware of the direct contingencies

When using physical guidance, it is important to:A.Not use it with a highly resistive clientB.Start the procedure immediately, regardless of how calm the client may beC.Speak loudly, demanding the performanceD.Help the client ignore proprioceptive cuesE.All the above

A.Not use it with a highly resistive client

In the practice of staff development, which of the following techniques are NOT helpful:A.Giving feedback to the staffB.Providing modeling for the staffC.Continuously increasing the amount of reinforcement given to staffD.Providing role playing experience

C.Continuously increasing the amount of reinforcement given to staff

To help program implementation, do NOT:A.Be present when implementedB.Use prompts temporarily when necessaryC.Provide feedback with praiseD.Set goals for the contingency managers and be sure to inform them of their goals

D.Set goals for the contingency managers and be sure to inform them of their goals

A behavioral package is:A.Two or more behaviors that are addressedB.Two or more procedures that are appliedC.Two or more contingency managersD.Two or more clients

B.Two or more procedures that are applied

Information gained from conducting an ABC analysis of a behavior change agent’s behavior can be useful in ensuring implementation of a program.A.TrueB.FALSE

A.True

It is important to get significant others in the environment to reinforce the consultee’s behavior change so that:A.The natural environment will prompt the behavior to continue occurring in your absenceB.Long-term maintenance will be promotedC.Fading will be promotedD.Both a and bE.All the above

D.Both a and b

Once an intervention is selected and implemented:A.It needs nurturingB.Let the contingency managers implement it on their own to promote independenceC.Don’t inform supervisors till the program is completedD.Provide contingency managers technical data on the clients progress

A.It needs nurturing

If teachers are to implement a program that they have been trained to implement during a workshop, such workshop training must:A.Be followed-up with on-the-job support and feedback for program implementationB.Be followed-up with on-the-job role-playingC.Be followed-up with on-the-job modelingD.Both b and c

A.Be followed-up with on-the-job support and feedback for program implementation

Which of the following would likely diminish the effectiveness of feedback? Provide:A.Specific feedbackB.Feedback at least twice a month initiallyC.Immediate feedbackD.Feedback that accentuates the positive

B.Feedback at least twice a month initially

Which of the following is NOT a supportive activity to a successful and sustainable program?A.Being present when the program is initiatedB.Removing aversive stimuliC.Combining feedback with prompts and reinforcementD.Maintaining continuous reinforcementE.Gradually decreasing prompts

D.Maintaining continuous reinforcement

Negative reinforcement can be used with change agents by:A.Quickly helping to resolve the problemB.Pointing out a specific mistake and then showing the correct applicationC.Presenting an aversive antecedentD.Removing reinforcementE.Both b and c

A.Quickly helping to resolve the problem

Which is NOT a method to help promote program maintenance when assisting contingency managers?A.Gradually decrease promptsB.Identify and use various reinforcing sources (e.g., clients, peers, supervisors)C.Continue to provide your reinforcersD.Both a and b

C.Continue to provide your reinforcers

During early consultation with teachers or parents, which of the following is NOT true:A.Frequent contacts are necessaryB.The type of feedback that should be provided is how the student is doing. The teacher knows how the teacher is doing and needs no recognition for that.C.Try to insure initial successD.Use a variety of reinforcing sources such as parents, students, etc.

B.The type of feedback that should be provided is how the student is doing. The teacher knows how the teacher is doing and needs no recognition for that.

Research indicates that at least _____ contacts per a week should be made during early consultation.OneTwoThreeDaily(WRONG)None of the above

Two

Providing feedback to program implementers is important. However, to help promote program implementation feedback should be combined with:A.Contextual fitB.PromptsC.Proper personnel preparationD.All the above

D.All the above

What should a supervisor do when employee behavior does not automatically produce feedback?A.train the employee to monitor his/her own behavior and provide self feedback
B.modify the task so that feedback is automatic
C.provide systematic observation with intermittent reinforcement
D.provide periodic retraining

C.provide systematic observation with intermittent reinforcement

Which is a component of behavioral skills training?A.classroom-based learningB.group discussionC.written testsD.modeling

D.modeling

Which is a distinguishing feature of the behavior skills training model?A.trainees are required to repeat the instructionsB.trainees are required to demonstrate target skillsC.trainers are required to provide instructionsD.rainers are required to demonstrate target skills

B.trainees are required to demonstrate target skills

Which of the following is NOT an essential strategy for changing behavior in the workplace?A.lecturingB.trainingC.coachingD.mentoring

A.lecturing

Which are the four steps to coaching?A.Observation, discussion, active coaching, follow-upB.Observation, practice, active coaching, correctionC.Discussion, observation, coaching, interventionD.Observation, introduction, active coaching, follow-up

A.Observation, discussion, active coaching, follow-up

Which of the following is a difference between the traditional approach to staff training that the behavior analytic approach to staff training?A.the behavior analytic approach does not use verbal instructionB.the behavior analytic approach relies more on verbal instruction and less on modelingC.the behavior analytic approach relies less on verbal instruction and more on modelingD.the behavior analytic approach does not rely as much on data

C.the behavior analytic approach relies less on verbal instruction and more on modeling

A behavior analyst is hired by a factory to increase employees clocking in on time after lunch. The behavior analyst determines that employees are clocking in late because the factory lunch room is too far from most work stations, and employees need five additional minutes to walk back to their work stations after lunch and clock in on time. What should the behavior analyst recommend?A.give employees 5 minutes less to eat, so they have time to walk back to their stations and clock in on timeB.penalize employees who clock in lateC.eliminate the lunch break so employees can be more productiveD.relocate the lunch room to be more central and closer to the work stations

D.relocate the lunch room to be more central and closer to the work stations

What must one do before embarking on a training program to change workplace behavior?A.motivate staff to participateB.determine if training is the solution to the problemC.develop the training materialsD.determine when staff are available

B.determine if training is the solution to the problem

A behavior analyst is hired by a company to increase work productivity by its employees. What should the behavior analyst do first?A.identify potential reinforcersB.identify problem employeesC.assess the management style of the companyD.assess the employee-environment interactions

D.assess the employee-environment interactions

Which is NOT a step of the behavioral training model?A.instructions and motivationB.shadowingC.practice with feedbackD.corrective feedback

B.shadowing

Intermittent reinforcementA.Rarely occursB.Has no effect on extinctionC.Increases resistance to extinctionD.Reduces resistance to extinction

C.Increases resistance to extinction

If you want to be sure your new behavior will continue once you stop your behavior-change plan, you should:A.Continue to reinforce each occurrence of the behaviorB.Abruptly change to a thin intermittent scheduleC.Make plans for the behavior to be reinforced by the natural environmentD.Get the new behavior into situations that challenge its competence

C.Make plans for the behavior to be reinforced by the natural environment

Truly successful skill learning appears:a.IndependentB.Easy to doC.With few, if any artificial reinforcersD.All the above

D.All the above

Which of the following schedules results in a delay of reinforcement when the individual fails to respond following the end of the interval?A.FTB.FIC.FRD.VR

B.FI

When increasing the resistance to extinction under an interval schedule, one should:A.Increase the interval graduallyB.Provide unconditioned reinforcersC.Withhold reinforcement at the end of some intervalsD.Do both a and c.

D.Do both a and c.

A schedule that sets upper and lower limits on reinforceable responding is:A.DRHB.DRDC.DRPD.DRL

C.DRP

Miss Bell taught Gloria to correctly name five pictures of animals. One was a tiger. The following weekend Gloria went to the zoo with her family and said “tiger” as soon as she saw the live tiger. Which of the following best describes the situation?A.Stimulus generalizationB.Response generalizationC.Errorless learningD.None of the above

A.Stimulus generalization

Generalization can mean:A.The behavior changed following the same or similar stimuliB.The behavior remains the same following different stimuliC.All the aboveD.None of the above

C.All the above

Response fluency:A.Reduces contingent effortB.Increases the probability of relapseC.Is directly related to time managementD.Is reached when a behavior is completed once with no mistakes

A.Reduces contingent effort

The class laughs at about half of the teacher’s jokes. This type of reinforcement is representative of:A.VRB.FRC.ExtinctionD.None of the above

A.VR

Ratio strain is most likely the result of:A.Too much reinforcementB.The schedule of reinforcement thinning or shifting too fastC.Reducing the number of tokens awarded by one each timeD.Switching from and FR2 to a VR2 schedule

B.The schedule of reinforcement thinning or shifting too fast

Nancy gets reinforced each time when she has packaged six bottles.A.FTB.FRC.FID.DRHE.Limited Hold (LH)

B.FR

An individual stops responding after receiving reinforcement. As the interval progresses, the response accelerates. This type of responding would most likely result from a(n):A.FIB.FRC.VID.VR

A.FI

To teach for generalization:A.Promote high fluency levelsB.Program common stimuli across conditionsC.Teach behaviors sequentiallyD.All the aboveBoth b and c

D.All the above

Sophia has learned to make change whenever we played “store.” However, this response did not initially generalize to any other setting. Coaching her performance in each of the community settings where Sophia had to handle money enhanced her ability to generalize across settings and people. This is an example of:A.Sequential trainingB.Training looselyC.Discrimination trainingD.None of the above

A.Sequential training

Which of the following is NOT a main factor promoting relapse?A.Gradually switching from continuous to intermittent reinforcementB.Continued reinforcement for the previous unwanted behaviorC.Punishment of the modified behaviorD.Discriminative stimuli that occasion the unwanted behavior

A.Gradually switching from continuous to intermittent reinforcement

People who are paid by the hour are working on a(n) ______ schedule of reinforcement.A.FRB.VRC.FID.VI

C.FI

A student sees the clock and notices the approach of recess time. The student rushes quickly through desk work and turns it in for grading. This performance is characteristic of _______ responding.A.FTB/.VRC.FRD.FI

D.FI

Which of the following schedules may produce superstitious behavior?A.FRB.FTC.VRD.VI

B.FT

Stimulus generalization differs from response generalization, in that with response generalization, the _____________ while in stimulus generalization the ____________.A.Response usually stays the same – stimulus usually variesB.Response varies – response stays the sameIncorrectC.Stimulus changes – response changesD.None of the above

B.Response varies – response stays the same

Four-year-old Krystal has been taught in a variety of situations to pour things out of a container. Her mother now complains that Krystal repeatedly tries to pour shampoo, conditioner and moisturizer on the living room carpet.When asked whether she poured the moisturizer on the carpet again, Krystal responds by saying that her grandmother did it. A possible solution to this problem would be:A.Discrimination trainingB.Correspondence trainingC.Response deductionD.None of the above

B.Correspondence training

Response generalization refers to:A.Using different stimuli to elicit variations of the conditioned responseB.Different stimuli that cue the same responseC.Systematically varying the schedule of reinforcement to enhance new forms of respondingD.The shifting forms of a response that is caused by the same or similar stimulus

D.The shifting forms of a response that is caused by the same or similar stimulus

Which of the following schedules best produces performance consistency and longer performance under extinction conditions?CRFFRPRVR

VR

You are most likely to get an extinction burst after a _________ schedule.FRVRCRFPR

CRF

A convenient schedule that a teacher can successfully use to maintain a behavior that she or he has successfully brought to a high rate (i.e., Susie now completes her arithmetic paper within 15 minutes each day) is a(n) _______ schedule.FRFTVRVI

VI

A schedule that sets upper and lower limits on reinforceable responding is:DRHDRDDRPDRL

DRP

The matching law refers to:A.Matching ones responses according to the proportion of payoffB.How to enhance the effectiveness of modelingC.Matching pictures and/or items reliablyD.None of the above

A.Matching ones responses according to the proportion of payoff

When behaviors learned under one set of circumstances occur at other times and places and/or in the presence of other people, we say that there is:A.A generalization effectB.Stimulus specificityC.Response generalizationD.Both a and b

A.A generalization effect

Four-year-old Krystal has been taught in a variety of situations to pour things out of a container. Her mother now complains that Krystal repeatedly tries to pour shampoo, conditioner and moisturizer on the living room carpet.The best solution to Krystal’s problem behavior would be:A.A good spankingB.Discrimination trainingC.Response inductionD.Response deduction

B.Discrimination training

Which of the following schedules produces the greatest resistance to extinction?Continuous reinforcementFRVRAll the above

VR

All of the other members on John’s basketball team can shoot free-throws with at least 80% accuracy. John, though, is only a 60% shooter. So, he practices for long hours and his team members praise him for doing so. After a week of this, his accuracy improves to his teammates’ average of 80%. Which of the following best describes the above situation?A.Premack principleB.ModelingC.Social facilitationD.A shaping procedure

C.Social facilitation

Every neat paper is given a gold star. This is a(n) _________ schedule.FTFRFIDRH

FR

When an individual’s particular behavior is evoked by a narrower and narrower range of specific stimuli, ______________ can be said to have occurred.A.GeneralizationB.Response inductionC.DiscriminationD.Reinforcement

C.Discrimination

Which of the following describes the best way to determine when it is necessary to program for generalization in a situation in which such training was not introduced initially by the contingency manager?A.When someone else informally observes that generalization is not occurringB.When treatment conditions fail to establish the behavioRC.When objective means indicate lack of generalizationD.When your objective is to teach a fine discrimination

C.When objective means indicate lack of generalization

Every so often, Mr. Sly looks over at Jim to see if he is on-task. If he is at the moment Mr. Sly checks, Jim earns a token. If Jim is not on task, he does not earn athe token. The “moment” is referred to as what type of schedule?FTFRFIDRHLimited Hold (LH)

Limited Hold (LH)

Which of the following factors should be included as part of your program to promote generalizations?A.Training that allows the natural contingencies to support the behaviorB.Training sufficient exemplarsC.Training with relatively little control over the stimuli presented in a very specific situationD.Both a & bE.All of the above

D.Both a & b

In ratio schedules of reinforcement, reinforcement is contingent on:A.A given number of responsesB.A response following a given time periodC.The passage of timeD.A higher rate of responding

A.A given number of responses

Which of the following is NOT a formal strategy for preventing relapse?A.Using a peer-support groupB.Employing high contingent effortC.Using correspondence trainingD.Allowing for self-management

B.Employing high contingent effort

Which of the following schedules readily permits the occurrence of other behaviors without affecting the rate of reinforcement?FRVRFIAll of the above are affected

FI

Which of the following schedules produces the greatest resistance to extinction?VIFRFIFT

VI

Jack behavior analyst owns a behavior analysis agency and wants to drum up more clients. He plans to asks some of his current clients to write statements saying how great and effective his services are so that he can use the statements in printed advertisements for his agency. What should Jack do?A.promote his business without soliciting endorsements from his clientsB.tell his clients what the statements will be used forC.get informed consent from his clients before printing the ads using their statementsD.pay his clients for their statements

A.promote his business without soliciting endorsements from his clients

Which statement is true about behavior analyst who is not familiar with the Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts?A.he/she will not be held responsible if they commit and infractionB.he/she will have a strong basis to appeal any disciplinary sanction that may followC.lack of awareness is not a defense to a charge of unethical conduct

C.lack of awareness is not a defense to a charge of unethical conduct

Which of the following must be reported to the Behavior Analyst Certification Board within 30 days by a certificant or applicant for certification?A.A change in name, address or other vital informationB.The filing of any criminal or civil charges against the applicant or certificantC.The initiation of any disciplinary charges, investigations or findings by a health care organization, federal or state agency, or other professional association against the applicant or certificantD.all of the above

D.all of the above

According to Baer, Wolf and Risley (1987), after 20 year since their seminal article, social problems are behaviors of an individual that ______.A.result in counteraction by the individualB.result in counteraction sometimes by the individual, but more often by othersC.result in no actions the individual or othersD.result in counteractions only by others

B.result in counteraction sometimes by the individual, but more often by others

Ed behavior analyst is present when a coworker misrepresents his experience and qualifications to a new client. What should Ed do?A.mind his own businessB.report his coworker to the bossC.attempt to resolve the problem with the coworkerD.report the coworker to the BACB

C.attempt to resolve the problem with the coworker

According to Baer, Wolf and Risley (1987), the dimension of Effective refers much more often to the degree to which ______.A.something other than the target behavior has been changedB.the target behavior has been changedC.behavior change procedures are effectiveD.the behavior analysts is satisfied with the behavior change

A.something other than the target behavior has been changed

The behavior analyst has a responsibility to do which of the following?A.support the values of the fieldB.disseminate knowledge to the publicC.discourage misrepresentation by non-certified individualsD.all of the above

D.all of the above

Kim behavior analyst meets Andrea at a party. Andrea tells Kim that her son was just diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and she does not know how best to help him, but a friend told her about a new treatment that involves blood transfusions. Kim is aware of the treatment and knows there is no empirical evidence supporting its use as a treatment for autism. What should Kim say to Andrea?A.nothing, it’s up to Andrea to decide what’s best for her sonB.she should inform Andrea that applied behavior analysis is an effective evidence-based treatment for autism and the other treatment is notC.she should inform Andrea that applied behavior analysis is only treatment that can help her sonD.he should encourage Andrea to try the new treatment

B.she should inform Andrea that applied behavior analysis is an effective evidence-based treatment for autism and the other treatment is not

Debbie behavior analyst is a solo practitioner. She suddenly moves away, without notifying her clients or helping them find another behavior analyst. One of her clients reports this to the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB). What, if anything, can the BACB do about the situation?A.nothing, because Debbie’s behavior is not a violation of BACB rulesB.refer Debbie’s clients to another behavior analyst in their areaC.require Debbie to continue to provide services until another behavior analyst is foundD.revoke or suspend Debbie’s certification

D.revoke or suspend Debbie’s certification

The Behavior Analyst Certification Board may issue sanctions for any of the following reasons except which?A.Any violation of a BACB rule or procedureB.Failure to adequately supervise or be supervised in accordance with the BACB Standards for SupervisionC.gross or repeated negligence, incompetence, misconduct, or malpracticeD.failure to engage in practice for more than two years

D.failure to engage in practice for more than two years

Which is Not a step for how to do incidental teaching?-wait for an initiation-request elaborated language-collect data-conduct a functional assessment

-conduct a functional assessment

Which are the two types of AAC approaches?-unaided and aided-independent and dependent-aided and supplemented-unaided and supplemented

-unaided and aided

According to Michael (1988), an environmental event, operation or stimulus condition which affects an organism by momentarily altering the reinforcing effectiveness of other events and the strength of responses reinforced by those other events is known as what?-a stimulus operation-reinforcement-an establishing operation-a discriminative stimulus

-an establishing operation

Self-management involves a(n) ______.-controlling behavior-controlled behavior-alternative behavior-A and B

-A and B

The grades you earn in most of your classes are related to which group contingencies?-Independent-Interdependent-Dependent-Control

-Independent

Physical guidance should be used when:-It is the easiest stimulus control method to use-The behavior lends itself nicely to it-Less intrusive stimulus control methods have failed-The behavior really needs to be controlled by antecedent stimuli quickly

-Less intrusive stimulus control methods have failed

Video modeling is used:-Across various broad populations-With individuals with autism-With individuals with severe developmental delays-Both b and c

-Across various broad populations

Direct Instruction places its emphasis on:-Frames-The use of proctors-Antecedent stimuli-Successive approximations

-Antecedent stimuli

Providing feedback to program implementers is important. However, to help promote program implementation feedback should be combined with:-Contextual fit-Prompts-Proper personnel preparation-All the above

-All the above

Michele taught her dog Mossimo to bring his leash to her whenever he needed to go outside to go to the bathroom, now Mossimo brings his leash to everyone who comes to the house. What kind of generalization can account for Mossimo’s behavior?-Stimulus generalization-Response generalization-Discriminative generalization-It is not a case of generalization

-Stimulus generalization

Incidental teaching can facilitate generalization of communicative skills by:-Conducting training casually throughout the child’s day that incorporates multiple examples and stimuli-Gradually increasing the stimulus-response interval-Allowing the experimenter to set-up artificial environments exactly the way he/she feels the natural environments would be-Employing a 1-to-1 ratio during correspondence training

-Conducting training casually throughout the child’s day that incorporates multiple examples and stimuli

For an individual who tends to be impulsive, the best schedule to consider using would be:DRHDRPVRFI

DRP

To help overcome stimulus overselectivity, use a ____________ phase.-VR-CRF-PR-FR

-VR

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