Please include in-text citations if needed Each Artist should have the following questions answered: 1. What’s the year of the artist’s birth (and, where applicable, death)? 2. Where was the artist born? Where did he or she create the majority of his or her work (if at a different location than this place of birth)? 3. What medium did the artist use? Did he or she use more than one main medium? 4. Which art movement did the artist contribute to? If he or she contributed to more than one movement, where did this artist make the greatest impact? 5. What are some of the artist’s most famous works of art? Choose one of these works and describe it in one to two sentences. In what ways is the piece characteristic of the movement specified above? (Include an image of the chosen piece with attribution.) 6. What challenges, if any, did the artist face that may have affected his or her work? What was happening in the world at that time that influenced the artist’s work? Be specific. If you cannot find a specific challenge, think analytically about how social, world, political and financial impacts might have shaped the context of the artist’s work.) 7. What’s innovative about the artist’s work for that time period?
Date of Submission
An art movement is a historical convergence of artists of a particular style, philosophy, ideals, technical approach, and timeframe. Art movements are diverse and often change with time. There is no basis for the formation of the campaign, but there are limitations in what constitutes a specific movement.
Benjamin West was an American artist born in Springfield, Pennsylvania, in 1738 and died in 1820 in London, England, where he created most of his work. He was of the Neoclassicism art movement and contributed to romanticism, which is evident in some of his art. Oil on canvas was his preferred art medium. Among his famous works of art include the painting The Death of General Wolfe, which embraces the virtues of the arts in Ancient Greece and Rome, including the principles of simplicity, symmetry, and mathematics. The simplicity in the painting depicts said attributes. He is also known for Death of Pale Horse, and Pylades and Orestes Brought as Victims before Iphigenia. Due to the king’s demands that paintings express the court’s style and nobility, West was unable to follow his dreams of pursuing certain scenes from American history. The Battle of Quebec inspired the painting of The Death of General Wolfe. His use of modern dress rather than antique drapery was innovative. It gave him an exotic and unique identity to depict a contemporary historical event within a classical composition (Benjamin West | Biography, Art, & Facts, 2019).
The Death of General Wolfe (1770)
Henry Fuseli was a Swiss painter born in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1741 and died in 1825 in London, the United Kingdom, where he did on most of his artwork. He used chalk, oil, and watercolor on canvas as his art medium and ventured into poetry. He was in the romanticism art movement, where he made the most impact and contributed to neoclassicism. He is famous for The Nightmare, which expresses romanticism by expressing the writer’s sense of beauty. His father’s objection to his marriage intention to Laveter and his feelings about this objection is seen in his art (Fuseli, 2020). He is also known for Titania and Bottom and Christ Disappearing at Emmaus, among others. His painting depicts an innovative technique of infusing emotions into his art, which labels him as dramatic, original, and sensual, making his art very popular (Fuseli, 2020).
The Nightmare (1781)
Mary Cassatt was born in 1844 in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, and died in Paris, France, where she mostly worked. She used oil on canvas and did printmaking, pastels, and drawing. Her art movement was mostly impressionism, but she ventured into Proto-Feminist Artists as well. She is popularly known for Little Girl in Blue Armchair, In the Loge, and The Letter. Little Girl in Blue Armchair represents the awkwardness of childhood and the isolation associated with it. It embodies impressionism through its asymmetrical composition, raised viewpoint, and shallow space. Cassatt lacked the resources and opportunities to develop her artistic skills in the US without her father’s control. At the time, women had begun to take an interest in non-conforming duties that idealized women’s domestic roles. This occurrence influenced her innovative use of layers of meaning behind the airy brushwork and fresh colors (Mary Cassatt | Biography, Art, & Facts, 2015).
Little Girl in Blue Armchair (1878)
Born in Lille, France, in 1868 and died in 1941, Emile Bernard was a French painter, art critic, and engraver. He worked on most of his art around France and used oil on canvas. Post-Impressionism was his first movement for which he strayed and made an impact in Synthetism, which shows in the subjective approach to painting in his artwork to evoke emotions. He was known for Madeleine in the Bois d’Amour, which reflects what he imagines his sister is going through when ill and Self-Portrait with Gauguin. The emotions he feels about his sister enable him to adopt Synthetism, founded on the idea of expressing emotion. He was let go for insubordinate behavior, which caused the delay in establishing his works. His innovative move to adopt many movement characteristics in his art made him very popular as it enabled him to impress a lot of people (Émile Bernard | French Painter, 2017).
Madeleine in the Bois d’Amour
He was born in Munich, Germany, in 1880 and died in 1916 in Braquis, France, where he worked. He used oil on canvas and used Expressionism to express the meaning of emotional experience rather than physical reality. Expressionism is used to express inner feelings through the exaggeration and distortion of color. He is known for The Yellow Cow, representing his sense of safety in his second marriage by merging feminine and masculine and Two Women on the Hillside He was confined to the naturalism taught in the Academy, and this limited his imagination to conform to the idealism of the Academy (Marc, 2016). He used vibrant and distorted colors to depict a primitive life
The Yellow Cow (1911)
Delaunay was born in 1885 in Ukraine, Russian Empire, and died in 1979 in Paris, France, where she mostly worked. She used oil on canvas and was in the cubism movement. She is known for NuJuane, also known as Yellow Nude, which depicts a woman’s beauty by limiting the view and Le Bal Bullier. Cubism reinvented traditional subjects such as nudes and landscapes, which is evident in Delaunay’s art. It differentiates from the original ideas of Cubism, which depicted more geometric forms (Delaunay, 2016).
He was born in 1891 in Bruhl, Germany, but also worked in Paris, where he died in 1976. He used pencil and oil on canvas to express Dada and Surrealism. He is best known for Here Everything is Still Floating, which is a collage aesthetic of anatomical drawings and photographs to randomize logic and is the epitome of Surrealism. He is also known for Celebes and Ubu Imperator. He uses Dada to expose accepted repressive conventions of order and logic by shocking people into self-awareness and Surrealism to remove images from the usual context and resemble an ambiguous, paradoxical framework. His instability in marriage influences him to suggest indefinite art forms (Ernst, 2016). His undefined art, including drawings and photographs, made him unique and very popular (Max Ernst | German Artist, 2016).
Here Everything Is Floating
She was born in 1925 in Chicago, Illinois, worked in Vetheuil, France, where she died in 1992. She used oil on canvas and was of Abstract Expressionism and action planning. She is best known for Untitled, City Landscape and Hemlock. Untitled depicts the Abstract Expressionism in a show of a conflicting subconscious from self-expression. Political instability and leftist politics were the primary concern in Europe. She used brushstrokes of color, reaching the edges of the canvas (Joan Mitchell | American Painter, 2012).
Born in 1931 in Kansas City, Missouri, and died in 2018, Morris was in the minimalism and post-minimalism movement and worked in New York. The movement emphasized the inability to use a metaphor of any kind. He is known to use many different art forms in the Box with the Sound of its Own Making and Site. He produced art focused on the role of language and its relationship to the body (Morris).
Box with the Sound of its Own Making
He was born in 1952 in Norman, Oklahoma, and works in New York. He uses oil and acrylic on canvas and Fabric with Wooden Chairs. He is of Neo-Expressionism and Postmodernism movement and is known for ‘Brother Animal’ and ‘Tennyson,’ which abide by is movement in the expression of color and figurative subject matter. At the time, art portrayed the human body in reaction to the remote, introverted, and highly intellectualized abstract art. He explored different art forms, such as producing sculptures and exhibiting his photography (Salle).
Every art movement had its era and geographic concentration. This required the artists to move around the world, mostly influencing people there or adopting their way of living. Each artist had their challenges that affected their artwork, but they continued to pursue the career and influence several people, to utilize their techniques and styles. It was wise to diversify and impact more than one movement while using more than one medium. An artist cannot be confined to rules of power as they express their emotion with their art while conversing about things in the world that affect them.
Delaunay, Sonia. “Sonia Delaunay Art, Bio, Ideas.” The Art Story, 2020, https://www.theartstory.org/artist/delaunay-sonia/.
“Émile Bernard | French Painter.” Encyclopedia Britannica, 2020, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Emile-Bernard.
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2020. Benjamin West | Biography, Art, & Facts.
[online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Benjamin-West [Accessed 30 June 2020].
Fuseli, Henry. “Henry Fuseli Artworks & Famous Paintings.”
The Art Story, 2020, https://www.theartstory.org/artist/fuseli-henry/artworks/.
“Joan Mitchell | American Painter.” Encyclopedia Britannica, 2020, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Joan-Mitchell.
Marc, Franz. “Franz Marc Paintings, Bio, Ideas.” The Art Story, 2020, https://www.theartstory.org/artist/marc-franz/.
“Mary Cassatt | Biography, Art, & Facts.” Encyclopedia Britannica, 2020, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Mary-Cassatt.
“Max Ernst | German Artist.” Encyclopedia Britannica, 2020, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Max-Ernst.
Morris, Robert. “Robert Morris Biography, Life & Quotes.” The Art Story, 2020, https://www.theartstory.org/artist/morris-robert/life-and-legacy/.
Salle, David. “David Salle Biography, Life & Quotes.” The Art Story, 2020, https://www.theartstory.org/artist/salle-david/life-and-legacy/#nav
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