Types of microscopy

1. Describe five ways in which microbes affect our lives.
2. Classification of Microorganisms
3. Sate and differentiate the major characteristics of each group of microorganisms.
4. Define what an emerging disease is and identify at least five examples of them.
Chapter 3

State the six different types of microscopy.
Identify the Compound (bright field) microscope parts, the path of light through this type of microscope and the function of each part (illuminator, condenser, objective lenses, specimen, and ocular lens).
In the nine main different types of microscopy study the following aspects:

a) Similarities and differences in the constitutive parts of each.
b) Source of light, condenser lens, background, and main uses.
5. State the preparation of specimens or smears for light microscopy.
6. Compare and state examples of simple, differential, and special stains.
7. List the steps in preparing a Gram stain and describe the appearance of gram-positive and gram- negative cells after each step.
Chapter 4
1. Define, compare, and contrast the overall cell structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
2. Prokaryotes: Identify the three basic shapes and the arrangements of bacteria.
3. Describe the structure and function of the glycocalyx, capsule, slime layer, flagella, axial filaments, fimbriae, and pili.
4. Describe, compare, and contrast the cell walls of gram-positive, gram -negative bacteria, archaea and mycoplasma.
5. Describe the structure, chemistry, and function of plasma membrane.
6. In the movement of materials across membranes describe and understand the following aspects:
a) Osmosis. Study and understand figure 4.18. State the effects of a microbial cell in an isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solution.
7. Describe the function and location of the following structures: cytoplasm, nuclear area, ribosomes, and endospore.
8. Eukaryotes: State the differences and similarities between the structures of eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
9. Describe the function of flagella and cilia.
10. Function of the following structures: cytoplasm, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi complex, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, chloroplast, peroxisome and centrosome.
Chapter 5
1. Define metabolism, anabolism, and catabolism.
2. In the enzyme’s topic study the following aspects:
a) Energy requirements of a chemical vs. enzymatic reaction.
b) Describe what is enzyme? State and define its components.
c) What is a cofactor and a coenzyme, state examples of each?
d) Describe the mechanism of enzymatic reaction figure 5.4
e) List the factors that cause an influence in the enzymatic activity: temperature, pH, substrate concentration, inhibitors (Competitive, non-competitive, and feed -back inhibition).
3. State the three form of energy production (ATP):
A) Substrate level phosphorylation
B) Photophosphorylation of chlorophyll
C) Oxidative phosphorylation

4. Carbohydrate catabolism. In the pathways of respiration and fermentation (which include glycolysis, intermediate step, Krebs cycle, ETC system, chemiosmosis, lactic acid and alcohol fermentation) you have to cover the following aspects:
a) What is the initial compound and how many molecules are used in each step (e.g. In glycolysis the initial compound: is one molecule of Glucose)
b) What is the type of chemical reaction(s) that occur(s) to produce energy? (E.g. oxidation of carbohydrates.)
c) Which is the end- product and how many molecules of it are formed? (e.g. two molecules of pyruvic acid)
b) How many ATP are consumed and how many are produced in each step?
c) How many NADH or FADH are produced in each pathway? (e.g. 2 ATP were used, and 4 ATP and 2 NADH were produced.

In respiration what are the differences between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration? In each type of respiration, you must cover the following aspects:

a) What is the compound that is the last electron acceptor?
b) State some examples of anaerobic electron acceptors.
c) How many ATP molecules are produced in the complete oxidation of a glucose molecule in prokaryotes and eukaryote?

Study the nutritional classification of organisms (

7. Study the integration of metabolism
Chapter 6

What are the microbial growth requirements?
What is the classification of microbes based on preferred range of temperature?
Which is the most common bacteria, mold and yeast pH range of growth?
Review how does osmotic pressure affect the microorganisms
Explain and state how microbes are classified based on oxygen requirements.
Identify ways in which aerobes avoid damage by toxic forms of oxygen.
State and define the different types of media culture.
State and define the different anaerobic culture methods.
Define bacterial growth, binary fission.
Identify and understand the four phases of bacterial growth (Log, Lag, stationary and death).

Chapter 7

Define the following terms sterilization, disinfection, sepsis bactericidal, bacteriostatic and pasteurization.
Define the factors that influence the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatments.
Describe and state the effects of microbial control agents on cellular structures.
Study table handout with the physical and chemical method of microbial control. State al least one object that is sterilized by these methods.
Study figure 7.11 State which the most resistant and the least resistant microorganism.

Chapter 20

Define chemotherapy, microbial drugs, antibiotic, selective toxicity, broad-spectrum antibiotic, and super infection.
Identify the five modes of action of antimicrobial drugs and mention al least two antibiotics examples in each mode of action.
Sate and understand the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance.
Explain the modes of action of antiviral drugs. State some examples of them.
Describe the most common tests for microbial susceptibility. What is MIC and MBC.
Define synergism and antagonism in antibiotics.

Chapter 8

Define and understand the process of DNA Replication, Transcription and Translation.
State the regulation of gene expression.
Study and understand Figure 8.14
Study and understand figure 8.15
Compare and contrast the three mechanisms of genetic recombination in bacteria.
Define vertical and horizontal gene transfer, donor, and recipient cell.
Define plasmid and transposons.

Chapter 9

Define Biotechnology, Genetic engineering, and Recombinant DNA technology.
Define Restriction enzymes, sticky ends. State some examples of them and their mode of action.
Define vector and its use.
Define PCR and its use.

Chapter 10

Distinguish the three domains: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. Review table 10.1 and 10.2.
Understand the Endo-symbiotic theory.
Study the three most common identification methods for microorganisms. Differential stains, biochemical test, and Serology.

Chapter 11

Define and understand the bacterial divisions, Gracilicutes, Firmicutes, Tenericutes and Medosocutes.
Identify at least 3 bacteria in each division, their names, gram reaction, and microscopic morphology.

Chapter 12

How fungi are divided?
Define hyphae, septated hyphae and non- septated, mycelium, anamorphous, telomorph, mycosis.
What is dimorphism and what are the five of dimorphic fungi?
What are the two reproductive mechanisms in fungi? What is the spore structure formed in each case?
Fungi classification according with their sexual and asexual reproduction.
Mycosis classification, type of tissue involved in each, mode of entry and state at least one representative fungi of each group.
Diagnosis of Fungal infections.


What are the two main kingdoms in Parasites?
Define cyst, trophozoite, larva, egg, pseudopodia, proglotide, scolex.
Protozoa main groups, pathogenicity, and type of structure used for movement. State representative pathogenic and opportunistic parasites of each group.
Helminthes classification, mode of reproduction, state human and opportunistic parasites in each group.
How parasitoses are acquired?
Diagnostic of parasitosis.

Chapter 13
1. Define Virus and identify how do they are constituted (Nucleic acids, capsid, envelope, naked, glycoproteins).
2. How Do viruses are cultured and identified
3. What is cytopathic effect? What is a bacteriophage?
4. State and define the viral multiplication life cycle (lysogenic and lytic). State a virus that follows each of thy cycles.
5. State and explain the animal viral multiplication.
6. What is an oncogenic virus and enumerate the oncogenic viruses?
7. What are latent virus infections and state examples of them?
8. From the 16 viral families study the following characteristics:

10.A) Nucleic acid
B) Oncogenic capacity
C) Latency.
D) Does a vaccine exist?
E) Most common infections diseases and the virus name.

13. What is a prion and explain the possible mechanism of action?

Chapter 14 and 15
1. Define Pathology, Pathogenicity, virulence, infection, disease, and symbiosis.

Define normal flora and describe some examples of the beneficial effects of it in humans
Contrast normal flora, human pathogen, and opportunistic pathogen.
Define signs, symptoms, contagious or communicable diseases, endemic, epidemic, and pandemic diseases.
Categorize the disease according with the severity (acute and chronic).
Define carriers, zoonosis, mortality, and morbidity.
Explain the three methods of disease transmition.
Define what a horizontal communicable disease spread is (direct and indirect) and Vertical communicable spread and state at least one example of each.
Define a nosocomial disease and the most common ways to spread this type of diseases in the hospital environment.
Define portal of entry and portals of exit of a communicable disease. State the three portals of entry of a communicable disease and describe at two examples of each mode.

Chapter 16

Define what is the immune response, how it is divided.
Describe the role of the primary nonspecific line of defense. Describe how the skin, mucous membrane and secretions produce a resistance to pathogens.
Describe the role of normal microbiota in nonspecific immune response.
Describe the cellular and humoral components of the nonspecific second line of defense.
Define phagocytosis and the steps of it.
Define inflammation and state the four signs of it.
Define Complement; describe the three pathways of its activation. Describe what the consequences of complement activation are.
Define Interferon and its mode of action.

Chapter 17
1. Define acquired immunity. State the three main characteristics of specific immune response. What are the cellular and humoral main components of it?

Define and state and example of active natural acquired, active artificial acquired, passive natural acquired and passive artificial acquired specific immune response.
Define antigen, antigenic determinants, or epitopes. Recall antigen characteristics. Define hapten and when it becomes a completeantigen.
Define antibody and the different types of Immunoglobulins (Ig’ s), their structure, their percent in blood, which of them fix complement and are placental transfer.
Study and understand the results of antigen-antibody binding (Figure 17.9).
Define what is a monoclonal antibody and how are they obtain?
Define cytokines, interleukins, and chemokines.
State the antigen presenting cells (APC).
Define the different type of T lymphocyte and their main function.
Define and understand the duality of the immune system.

Chapter 18

Define vaccine, explain how vaccination works.
State, explain and differentiate between the 3 different types of vaccines: 1) whole microorganisms (inactivated and attenuated), 2) Acellular / subunits (Purified antigen and recombinant DNA) and 3) Toxin (toxoids).
State Principal vaccines used in the US to prevent viral and bacterial diseases in humans (Table 18.1 and 18.2).
Define serology. Define and understand the five different techniques by which a reaction Ag-Ab can be determined:

a) Precipitation (figure 18.3)
b) Agglutination (figures 18.4, 18.5, 18.6 and 18.7)
c) Neutralization (figure 18.8).
d) Complement fixation (figure 18.9)
e) Labeled techniques (figures 18.10 and 18.12).
f) Western Blot
Chapter 19

Define hypersensitivity, allergen, and anaphylaxis.
Define and state their function of mast cells, histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins.
State the four types of hypersensitivity reactions (table 19.1), their characteristics and at least two examples of each type. Study figures 19.1, 19.2, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6 and 19.7 for analytical questions.

4. Define autoimmune diseases. Study and understand the table that it is provided in the power point of this chapter). Be able to distinguish examples of each type.

Define HLA complex and explain its importance in disease susceptibility and tissue transplant.
Define the different types of transplants

A) Explain the viral attachment to a host cell.
B) How does the virus evade the immune response?
C) State and describe the stages of HIV infection.
D) State the body fluids by which the infection is acquired
E) Diagnosis
F) Treatment
G) Prevention
Mechanisms of HIV resistance to the infection disease (Slide 45

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