According to Bluma Zeigarnik, what happens when we fail to complete some task?
Embarrassed by our failure, we immediately repress it
It can be said that we have achieved “closure”
A “quasi-need” to complete the task will persist over a period of time
We won’t recall it as well as a completed task
According to the 19th century positivist ideas of Auguste Comte,
The ability to control nature is evidence that nature has been understood
Truth ultimately lies in metaphysical analysis
We can never be sure of the reality of anything
Psychology should be the study of consciousness, not the study of behavior
After conditioning, a CS produces a CR. But if the CS is then presented repeatedly without the UCS, the CR diminishes. Pavlov called this process
If a dog is salivating to a 60 cps tone, but not to a 70 cps tone, what has probably happened?
How was Pavlov treated by the Soviet Union?
His work was supported financially because it was consistent with the Soviet vision
He was treated with suspicion and temporarily jailed because of his criticisms of the Soviets
He was tolerated for a while, but his criticisms eventually led to his deportation to Great Britain
Because of Pavlov’s enthusiastic public support for the revolution, he was a hero to the Soviets
In the Little Albert study, Watson and Rayner investigated all of the following except
Extinction of the fear
Generalization of fear
Persistence of fear (over time)
In the 1930s, Jewish psychologists were stereotyped, with the stereotype including all of the following labels except
Shrewd and calculating
Why was logical positivism attractive to American experimental psychologists?
It provided a means to study unobservable entities and still remain “scientific”
It enabled researchers to avoid having to take unobservable entities into account in their theorizing
Researchers like facts, not theory, and this movement enabled them to avoid theory
It provided a way to reintroduce introspection into psychology, but to do it scientifically
Which of the following is inappropriately paired?
According to Tolman’s system,
Intervening variables are to be avoided
Logical positivism and operationism have harmed psychology
Before being able to understand molar behavior, psychology must understand molecular behavior
Behavior is goal-oriented or purposive
What did Hull and Tolman have in common?
They both rejected the idea of focusing on molecular behavior
They both investigated hypnosis and its effects
They both included intervening variables in their systems
They both believed that reinforcement was essential in order for learning to occur
Hull’s famous postulate #4 proposed that habit strength increases
Only if drive state is very low
Only if primary reinforcers are used; secondary reinforcers don’t work
Simply as a result of practice; reinforcement isn’t important
As a function of the number of reinforced trials
Which of the following best summarizes Skinner’s ideas about operant conditioning?
A stimulus paired with a response will, on recurrence, tend to elicit that response again
Learning results from the gradual construction of cognitive maps
Behaviors producing positive consequences tend to recur
Learning occurs through the repeated pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
Which of the following is true about the IQ Zoo?
The Brelands found out that reinforcement was powerful enough to produce the conditioning of any kind of behavior in any species
It demonstrated that some animals were instinctively smarter than others
It showed that classical (Pavlovian) conditioning had greater application than operant (Skinnerian) conditioning
The Brelands found that there were biological limitations on what could be conditioned
What did Pinel’s approach to the treatment of the mentally ill have in common with William Tuke’s approach?
Both involved seeking cures through bloodletting
In both cases, physically restraining patients was eliminated completely
Both tried to change behavior by using rewards and punishments
Both based their ideas on Quaker philosophy and therefore sought to cure mental illness through religious conversion
Question 2 ( Answer in details)
, If the child (now an adult) is going to visit the absent father specifically for the purpose of discussing how she felt abandoned by him, should the child go alone, or should the father come to the child and the mother (who she’s lived with all of her life)?