United States History

Marcus Garvey was the leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association which was configured of only African Americans. According to section 12-4b in my textbook,”Garvey promoted economic independence by encouraging black-owned businesses that would help manufacture and sell products to black consumers,”.Other things where also put in place like a hotel that would allow “any black person to make a reservation”.”His newspaper, Negro World, preached black pride, and he founded the Black Star steamship line to transport manufactured goods North America, the Caribbean, and Africa. These are viable solutions to help the black community but they fell through due to some mismanagement in the 1920’s. Migrating African Americans into the city had a okay affect on them meaning it was not the best but it allowed them more freedom. “The move northward included psychological release because a parcel of freedom was available in New York and Chicago that did not exist in Charleston or Atlanta. The Harlem Renaissance allowed for African American artist to express themselves and know that they are of value. Section 12-7e states,” But Langston Hughes wrote,”We younger Negro artist who create now intend to express express our individual dark-skinned selves without fear or shame. If white people are pleased, we are glad. If they are not, it doesn’t matter. We know we are beautiful.”


Kamensky, Jane, Carol Sheriff, David W. Blight, Howard P. Chudacoff, Fredrik Logevall, Beth Bailey, and Mary Beth Norton. A People & a Nation: a History of the United States. 11th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage., 2019.


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