1. Carla: Terotogens are toxins which are not naturally occurring in the environment, but are harmful to the growth and development of a fetus in utero (Rogers, p. 194). The impact of teratogens on prenatal development can be either physical abnormality (shortened limbs, heart defects or facial characteristics) or behavioral challenges such as attention deficit, learning difficulties, poor language skills and concentration difficulties. Three environmental toxins that are common hazards to prenatal development include: radiation, lead and emissions. Radiation negatively impacts prenatal development by causing disfigurement, cognitive delay, and low birth weight. Lead exposure can cause neurological problems, childhood cancer, behavioral problems, prematurity and miscarriage. Emissions and exposure to toxic chemicals can cause disproportionate drops in the number of male children (due to the specific effect of certain chemicals on the male fetus in utero.) (Rogers, p. 194) Social workers must be aware of the living conditions of their clientele and the presence of potential teratogens which can negatively impact the health of their clients and their unborn children. Rogers, A. (2020). Human behavior in the social environment: Perspectives on development, the life course, and macro contexts. New York, NY: Routledge. 2. Gwendolyn: Dr.Matthews and Class, It would be a good idea for Josie to discuss this issue with her parent and get their input. An important part of a client’s decision-making process relates to the client’s right to self-determination (Rogers 2019). But since her boyfriend does not want to support her and she would have to drop out of school to support her baby. It may be important that she look at other options such as considering Adoption, or deciding whether to keep her baby, or whether to terminate pregnancy. Both sides of each family dynamics needs to be assessed to determine what types of health concerns that the child may inherit(Rogers 2019). Social worker needs to look also at Josie cognitive ability to be able to think and make decisions. The majority of studies conclude that lack of planning places infants at risk for health and mental health disadvantages such as abuse, premature birth, developmental delays, delayed or inadequate prenatal care, and insecure attachments to their mothers (Goossens et al., 2016; Wind, 2015). It will be difficult to offer support for a new born with no support. I am sure that she would be able to find a family that would gladly adopt a newborn. She would need to make sure she go to Dr and get all the prenatal care that she needs. She could speak with guidance counselor at school to learn of resources available to her. An ineffective plan would be is to have the child and try to get her boyfriend to marry her even though he advised that he would not support her. She would have to get on governmental assistance due to her age and lack of education to seek employment. She would have to locate a primary care Dr if she decide to keep her baby. She will also need to consider child birthing classes. We as social workers must focus on the needs of client and the circumstances around their decision making skills. Social workers also may work toward making social policies more family-oriented so that some women do not feel compelled to choose abortion, or they may work toward changing the laws surrounding abortion options on a legislative level. We must not let our personal bias and beliefs get in the way of any decisions made. I could also discuss some of the current social problems that are known that can happen during pregnancy and offer any support that she may need. Another approach is to rely on community organization or social action approaches to ensure that appropriate services are made available to people like Josie (Rogers 2019). Rogers, A. T. (2019). Human behavior in the social environment: Perspectives on development and the life course (5th ed.). Routledge. 3: Jerry: As of 2018 we have a total of 37000 people in Washington state locked up in prisons, our population is 7.6million people of that mix it is; 5.9millon white people, 313,176 African Americans, 136,590 natives, 676,157 Asians, native Hawaiian or other pacific islander 59,617, two or more races 392,413. (Population by race. (n.d.) Our prison population has 392 thousand whites, 601 thousand Hispanics, 2372 thousand African Americans, 1427 thousand American Indians/ Alaska natives living in the prison system. (Initiative, P. (n.d.) I believe that due to mandatory sentencing on drug crimes that consist of location of where the person is arrested affects the population and length of prison sentence, Washington state has enhancements due to the get tough on crime policy. No matter the amount of a substance you have or having a gun on you if you are arrested or end a chase in an area that is considered a drug free/ gun-free zone you will have added time that is mandatory, this can be an added 10 years on top of your eluding police/ resisting arrest. Due to the large proportion African Americans being found in Seattle city in Washington state, they have even stricter rules about gun crimes. If an individual has both a gun and drugs, he can be looking at doing no less then 20 years due to the mandatory sentencing. (Schnurbush, K., & Pullin, M. 2018.) Because Seattle’s diversity is black and Asian this is why our prison population is more African American than any other race found in Washington state. This means we will see more African Americans carrying out mandatory time which can be longer than other crimes committed by others, this law is to reduce crime of said nature but it then fills out prisons up with stagnant inmates of color which causes a further inequality in our prison population. Barusch, A. S. (2017). Empowerment Series: Foundations of Social Policy: Social Justice in Human Perspective. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781337515245/ (Links to an external site.) Initiative, P. (n.d.). Washington profile. Retrieved July 27, 2020, from https://www.prisonpolicy.org/profiles/WA.html Population by race. (n.d.). Retrieved July 27, 2020, from https://www.ofm.wa.gov/washington-data-research/statewide-data/washington-trends/population-changes/population-race (Links to an external site.) Schnurbush, K., & Pullin, M. (2018). Drugs, Society, and Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.