How Token Economy Procedures can be adapted to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in the classroom.Assignment | Cheap Essay Services

Check the APA Manual for your title page. You are missing a title, the running head is off, page number is off. Your formatting needs to follow the manual. They have a sample paper in there, format that way. Cite at the end of a paragraph, it makes your writing sound stronger. Your summaries are good, but you need to add more about your question, how does this add on to the existing research? Also, check for grammar and spelling. We aren’t up to the methods yet, but follow APA for formatting.

Wisline Michel

Applied Behavioral Analysis, St Thomas University

EDF 6400: Measurement and Single Case Design

Dr. Joel

July 26, 2020

Teacher’s  comments: please follow APA manual

Check the APA Manual for your title page. You are missing a title, the running head is off, page number is off. Your formatting needs to follow the manual. They have a sample paper in there, format that way. Cite at the end of a paragraph, it makes your writing sound stronger. Your summaries are good, but you need to add more about your question, how does this add on to the existing research? Also, check for grammar and spelling. We aren’t up to the methods yet, but follow APA for formatting.























How Token Economy Procedures can be adapted to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in   the classroom.















 How Token Economy Procedures can be adapted to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in  the classroom.

Effective classroom management strategies can help teachers with an important issue that may hinder the learning and teaching process, which is a student’s disruptive behaviour. Deering (2011) disruptive behaviour is defined as any behaviour that is disrespectful, annoying or distracting, wastes class time, or generates negative attitude towards the course or instructor. Moreover, Matalon (2008) described classroom management as all the teacher behaviours that lead to the creation of an orderly classroom environment and promotes learning. As a Sped teacher, I know for fact that disruption is the common request for assistance in many of the classrooms. Disruptive behaviour has a major impact on teachers, students, and parents. Therefore, in the classroom environment, teachers must ensure that learners have their fundamental rights to have a safe and respectful environment for learning.

Kauffman (Oliver, Wehby & Daniel, 2011), argued that a child’s behaviour is shaped by the social context of the environment during the development process. Additionally, Kauffman, Patterson, Reid and Dishion (Oliver, Wehby & Daniel, 2011), argued that many behaviour problems begin or made worse through behavioral processes such as modeling, reinforcement, extinction, and punishment.  Therefore, educators need to make major changes to the learning environment to decrease disruptive behavior in the classroom. These changes, if successful, can result in an increase in academic performance and enable students as well as teachers to enjoy a respectful, inviting, healthy, and productive learning environment.

Disruptive behavior is a major concern in the school district and the majority of the special needs students who have frequent disruptive behavior tend to experience less academic engagement and lower academic outcomes (Hirst, Dozier, & Payne, 2016). A common intervention that always came clear in multiples journal throughout research is the use of a token economy system in the classroom, and accordingly, this positive reinforcement intervention has been shown by many researchers to have been positive outcomes. When exploring disruptive behavior management in special education, token economy is often utilized for classroom behavior improvement (Matson, et al 2016).

Disruptive behaviour has been taken over the classroom, which affects the students’ performance.  Researchers have found that the use of token economy to be a highly effective strategy in decreasing disruptive behaviour. As a classroom teacher, I’m aware that disruptive behaviour poses a major threat to the teaching and learning environment, something needs to be done to help in reducing disruptive behaviour in the classroom environment.

Token Economy systems

Token economy is a classroom management system that has been implemented for many years and continues to be employed by numerous teachers in the classroom (Taylor &Philip, 2019). Matalon (2008) defined token economy as a contingency: tokens are given as soon as possible following the emission of a target response. The tokens are later exchanged for a reinforcing object or event.According to DeFrancis and Solomon (2016) a token economy comprises of three key components namely; a specified list of target behaviors, tokens or points for emitting target behaviors and a menu of backup reinforce items. Literature supports that token economy is efficient in creating immediate behavioral response by increasing on-task and reducing disruptive behavior in the classroom (Taylor & Philip, 2019). Skinner (1938) defined positive reinforcement as a method of strengthening behaviour by providing a consequence an individual finds rewarding.

Wheeler and Danielle (2017) opine that token economy can be utilized to reinforce appropriate social skills when addressing disruptive behavior. Therefore, effective approaches to manage the classroom environment are necessary to establish environments that support the student’s behavior and promote students’ engagement. Teachers who utilize token economy as an effective classroom management can improve the students’ behavior and establish a positive learning environment in the classroom (Wheeler & Danielle, 2017).

According to Glascott & Belfiore (2019), during the study, a daily lottery system was implemented, which resulted to the students earning tickets (also referred to as tokens) on sampling-differential reinforcement. Awarding of the tickets was done if students portrayed compliant behaviors, which were observed using the timed interval cue.The study examined the impacts of the token economy when dealing with noncompliant behavior among 3rd grade students in a K8th urban school. The dependent variable for the study was the noncompliant behavior for the 10 students while the independent variable was the lottery system and its effectiveness.The authors used a single case, ABAB design for evaluating the lottery system.The initial baseline phase entailed observing a stable pattern of non-compliant behavior, which was followed by intervention during the second phase. Based on the results, the lottery system intervention is effective in decreasing non-compliant behaviors among students. After implementation, the lottery system reduces group-wide noncompliant behavior. A major limitation in the study was attrition as one of the students quit both the study and reading group. The lottery system is more effective than token reinforcement. Zlomke Zlomke (2003), is a good source that demonstrates how self-monitoring and the token economy can help to address disruptive behaviors in the classroom.

Mirzamani, Ashoori & Sereshki (2011), state that children with mental challenges, experience difficulties in learning materials that are abstract. This means that there should be an emphasis on objectivity when training them and their behavior outcomes observed.The purpose of the article is to evaluate the impact of the token and social economy on 9th grade student achievement. The independent variable is the social and token economy and the dependent variable is academic achievement. The experimental design used in the study was pre-test post-test and comprised of a control with a total of 98 mentally challenged male students. The procedure entailed random selection of students aged between 13 and 17 years with an IQ of between 60 and 70.The use of a token economy increases academic achievement among students who have intellectual disabilities as opposed to the use of social reinforcements. Mentally retarded students have better academic outcomes in the science course group compared to the control group.The major limitation of the research is small sample size. Findings of the study can be used when applying the token economy to improve academic skills. Afrooz (2000) is a valuable source that provides insights on how to educate mentally retarded children.

Drexler (2010), notes that educators tend to use reward systems with the goal of enhancing academic performance and appropriate behavior among students.The purpose of the research is to gain a deeper understanding of different types of extrinsic motivation that teachers use at the elementary level. The independent variable is the grade level while the dependent variable is the form of reward.The experimental design used was a survey administered to participants.The research was a quantitative study that involved choosing a sample of teachers from suburban elementary schools. From the results, teachers tend to use some form of rewards in the classroom. Incentives are used by elementary teachers for student motivation. The study used a small sample size that was not representative of the entire teacher population. One of the most helpful points is the need to evaluate reasons why teachers use some form of motivations and not others. Wheat et al. (2009) is an interesting resource on the use of differential reinforcement to improve behavior.

The rationale for this research is for the growing literature that shows the need for appropriate interventions due to the increase of challenging behaviors occurring in schools. Behavior management is a challenge that many teachers face on a daily basis because many students with learning disabilities do not understand suitable behaviors or interactions with peers. Such students may display different type of disruptive behaviors such as being off task, talking out of turn, not completing task and distracting other students to their attention. These disruptive behaviors not only have an undesirable influence on students’ academic progress, but also on the teachers’ performance since they annual evaluations are based on the students’ performance Accordingly, many behaviors such as off-task, out-of-seat, and talking out of turn can be managed by token economy intervention, which has a positive result (Clunies-Ross, Little, &Kienhuis, 2008). There are few limitations in the study. One of the limitations of the study was the students’ absences in class during the intervention.  Being absent can be either for serving time in outdoor or indoor suspension or being absent from school.  Technically, the intervention should have taken place with the same students from the day one to the end of study. Another limitation is how implementing the action research interferes with the classroom activities. For instance, since the timer was set to go off at a certain time in order to award the tokens; in many occasions the teacher had to stop instruction in order to observe the target behaviors and complete the behavioral observation checklist.  Overall, the outcomes have shown positive results.




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and reactive classroom management strategies and their relationship with teacher stress and student behavior”. Educational Psychology, 28, 693–710

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             Dev, 4(3-4): 231-240

DeFrancis, Solomon D(2016)., “A Qualitative Study Analysis on How Utilizing a Token

Economy Impacts Behavior and Academic Success”.Dissertations. 30.

Drexler, J. (2010). Teachers’ attitudes about reward systems in the classroom. Education and Human Development Master’s Theses. 25.

Fiksdal, B. L., (2015) A comparison of the effectiveness of a token economy system, a response

cost condition, and a combination condition in reducing problem behaviors and increasing student academic engagement and performance in two first grade classrooms. Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects. Paper 343

Glascott, T. &Belfiore, P. J. (2019). The effects of token reinforcement, in the form of a lottery, on noncompliance in an urban third grade classroom. Psychology and Behavioral Science International Journal, 13(5), 1-7. DOI: 10.19080/PBSIJ.2019.13.555874

Hirst, E. S. J., Dozier, C. L., & Payne, S. W., (2016) Efficacy of and preference for

Reinforcement and response cost in token economies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 49(2), 329-345.

Matalon, B. (2008). Classroom and behaviour management.Kingston, Jamaica: university of the

West Indies.

Matson, Johnny &Estabillo, Jasper & Matheis, Maya. (2016). Token Economy. 10.1007/978-3-


Mirzamani, S. M., Ashoori, M., Sereshki, N. A. (2011). The effect of social and token economy reinforcements on academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry6(1), 25–30.

Oliver, R., Wehby, J., & Daniel, J. (2011). Teacher classroom management practice: Effects on

disruptive behaviour or aggressive student behaviour. Campbell Syst Rev, 4-19.

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Samantha S, Vincent M. S., Peterkin&  Paul A (2018) “A Token Economy: An Approach used

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Measurement and Single Case Design Final Rubric


The Scoring Scale for Paper Content:


4      OUTSTANDING: The criteria were thoroughly addressed according to the statement.

3      GOOD:  The criteria are addressed but one or two major points are missing according to the statement

2      FAIR: The criteria are somewhat met but several major points are missing according to the statement

1      POOR: The criteria were not recognized or were extremely weak.

0      NOT INDICATED: The criteria was neither addressed nor mentioned.


The Scoring scale for simple APA style components.


2      The content has been provided and it is formatted according to the 6th edition style manual

1      The content has been provided but it is not formatted according to the 6th edition style manual

0      The content has not been provided


The Scoring scale for Relevance to Applied Behavior Analysis:

4      The content of the research represents the BACB’s Guidelines for Responsible Conduct and principles outlined in “Some dimensions of applied behavior analysis” (Baer, Wolf, & Risley,1968).

2      The content of the research weakly represents the BACB’s Guidelines for Responsible Conduct and principles outlined in “Some dimensions of applied behavior analysis” (Baer, Wolf, & Risley,1968).

0      The content has not been provided or does not represent the BACB’s Guidelines for

Responsible Conduct and principles outlined in “Some dimensions of applied behavior

analysis” (Baer, Wolf, & Risley,1968).


Section Break Down


1.0 Title Page                                       Total Points: 16

3.0 Rationale/Introduction               Total Points: 42

4.0 Methods                                         Total Points: 48

7.0 References                                     Total Points: 4

9.0 Relevance to ABA                         Total Points: 20

Total Points:  130 Points


1.0   Title Page Scoring Option Score Given
A title page is present. 0  1  2  
Running head with page number. 0  1  2  
Title is concise and identifies the variables under investigation and their relationship. 0  1  2  3  4  
Name includes first name, middle initial (I/A), and last name. 0  1  2  
Affiliation is identified. 0  1  2  
Proper spacing according to APA 6th edition format. 0  1  2  
Proper placement according to APA 6th edition format. 0  1  2  
  Total: 16 Points  
2.0   Rationale/Introduction    
Problem is placed into larger context. 0  1  2  3  4  
Literature is presented in context of importance and desirability. 0  1  2  3  4  
Relevant literature is synthesized that supports the topic. 0  1  2  3  4  
Problem narrows from broad context to specific concern (constituents). 0  1  2  3  4  
Most sources are recent, older sources are “Seminole” or original works. 0  1  2  3  4  
Prior research flaws and strengths are noted, especially methodological. 0  1  2  3  4  
Narrow statement of the problem that can be managed (specific problem). 0  1  2  3  4  
Research questions and/or hypotheses are specific enough for study and relate to problem. 0  1  2  3  4  
Independent and dependent variable relationship clearly stated. 0  1  2  3  4  
Dependent variable is measureable. 0  1  2  3  4  
The references in the body of the document are properly formatted. 0  1  2  
  Total: 42 Points  
3.0   Methods    
The sample is clearly defined. 0  1  2  3  4  
Procedures for selecting cases are thoroughly discussed. 0  1  2  3  4  
Support is given for generalizability (extraneous variables are held constant). 0  1  2  3  4  
Procedures are described well enough for others to replicate the study. 0  1  2  3  4  
Experimental manipulation is well described. 0  1  2  3  4  
Treatment fidelity is addressed. 0  1  2  3  4  
Instrument selected/developed for operationalization of the dependent variables is reliable and valid. 0  1  2  3  4  
Reliability information/data is provided. 0  1  2  3  4  
Validity information/data is provided. 0  1  2  3  4  
The appropriate data analysis procedure has been selected. 0  1  2  3  4  
Justification is made for design selection. 0  1   2   3   4  
Description of how the analysis will answer the research questions included. 0  1   2   3   4  
  Total: 48 Points  
4.0   References    
All references listed were cited in the body of the manuscript 0  1   2  
All references are formatted to APA 6th edition style guidelines 0  1   2  
  Total: 4 Points  
9.0 Relevance to Applied Behavior Analysis    
The behavior selected for change investigates socially significant behaviors with immediate importance to the subject(s) or the field of ABA. 0  2   4  
Experimental control is explained. 0  2   4  
At least one of the interventions are behavior Analytic (There are instances where non-behavior analytic procedures may be compared). 0  2   4  
Client information was kept confidential. 0  2   4  
Mentalistic explanations were not utilized. 0  2   4  
Evidence of plagiarism was noted.  This includes purposeful or accidental misuse or omission of appropriate citations, using exact words (e.g. copy/paste” without quotation marks, altering the data as to skew interpretation, or fabricating the data utilized in the results section. If any one of these violations is identified in the work, the final score for the paper and the course will be an “F”.  In addition, the student will be reported and recommended for academic suspension.  
  Total Points: 20 Points  





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