child development Assignment | Cheap Essay Services


hello, I have received feedback from my tutor, which I will attach to this

Award in Supporting Teaching and Learning in Schools Level 3 QCF

Assignment unit number

Unit 1

Personal Details

Yasmin Hatija

Student Number




Assessment criteria 1.1.1

Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth-19 years.


The sequence of development is a pattern of development that is followed throughout development from birth to 19 years; these tell us the physical and emotional changes throughout each stage of development. It is very helpful for practitioners to understand where children are at with there development. Some children may need additional support, and therefore they can be given the support they need.


It is also essential to note that the rate at which children learn different things differs.


Age Physical Social, Behavioural and Moral Intellectual


Communication Emotional
Birth – 1 year Babies are beginning to hold their bottle while drinking, sitting up, holding there head up, crawling, and also pulling themselves up to stand. By 12 months, some babies may have already taken their first steps. Babies learn to smile, laugh, and bond with parents; they should also identify their faces. They also start to trust the people around them. They should begin to respond to their name from four to eight months and develop a regular bedtime. Addedly, they show excitement when they see their parents and cry when they leave the room. At 8-12 months, babies may enjoy playing with their toys independently, crawling, and exploring. They will generally be anxious around strangers and cling onto their parents. They begin exploring the world around them, problem-solve, play with their toys, and be curious about all things around them. Smiling and laughing.


From birth, babies will cry to express their emotions. For instance, when they are hungry or need a nappy change. They start to make sounds like ‘aah,’ ‘ooh’ ‘as a means of communication. They then begin to make babbling sounds and understand words such as ‘bye, bye,’ they should also recognize their name. By 12 months, babies will probably be able to say the words, ‘da da,’ ‘mama,’ and ‘bye, bye.’ Before three months, babies will recognize some faces and feel comfortable around them.  They may also concentrate on sounds around them. From three to six months, they should wave their arms and legs in excitement. They also start to differentiate people and find their reflections fascinating. From 10-12 months, babies will clap in excitement and joy. They will also get attached to one or both parents and show distress when they are not around. Babies may also throw tantrums if they do not get what they want.
1 – 3 years Toddlers should be walking and trying to keep their balance, pushing their toys along with them. They will also start to use cutlery independently, drink from a sippy cup, and draw with crayons. They will develop a personality; they may enjoy dancing, music, exploring their new surroundings, and wanting to play with other children. By three years, toddlers should be able to take turns during activities. From 1 the age of one toddler may copy adults’ words or actions, look through books, and point at objects they find familiar. At two years old, toddlers may enjoy pretend play, like cooking, hoovering, brushing the floor, and washing up. Toddlers may also listen and follow instructions like to go and find their shoes; they may also try to wear them. They should also name some objects. Toddlers should understand basic instructions, wave goodbye, and copy animal sounds. By 18-24 months, they should say at least 20 words, identify the body parts, and hold fingers to tell their age. At 24 months, they should ask for food and drink. They will also as questions like, ‘what is this?’ By 12 months, children start to become independent and want their way. They show different emotions by crying and yelling. Tantrums should set in at around two years; this is called ‘terrible twos.’ Often, they become frustrated because it is difficult for them to explain what they want; their speech is not well developed. They will also enjoy being cuddled and feeling comforted.
3- 7 years By four years, children may feel confident, jumping off steps that are not too high and even standing on one foot. From five to six, children should be more energetic and active for longer periods. They will also start climbing. By seven, they should throw balls better and react faster when catching them.


They will find it easier to separate from their parents. They should also be able to dress, undress, and be toilet trained. They should also understand other people’s feelings. They should start to tell recent stories, and name some colors; they will also begin to understand opposites and copy some letters. They should say up to 2000 words, understand the concepts of yesterday, today, and tomorrow. By three years, they should construct at least 4-word sentences and recite nursery rhymes. Their sentences should be longer by four years old, and they will ask frequently. From six to seven years, they should understand up to 20,000 words. They should also understand yearly seasons. From three to four years, they should have learned kindness, empathy, and embarrassment. They may still throw tantrums due to routine changes. They may be distressed as they try to express their feelings.
7 – 12 years By seven years, they should enjoy many activities, like riding a bike. They should be able to dress up, skip, race, and use tools. From 10 – 12, they may show outbursts of anger. Girls may gain weight as puberty starts. They may enjoy socializing but will need alone-time. The child may have fears about disasters occurring. Children may start to collect items. They should be able to consider other people’s perspectives. They may also like to look independent. They may enjoy reading, understanding money, and telling the time. They should think logically, solve problems, and understand goal-setting. Their speech will become clearer, and they may take an interest in new words; their vocabulary will grow. They should be able to read, use good grammar, and engage in complex conversations. They may want more attention and come off as rude or argumentative. They will think more about their appearance. They should also be able to understand the difference between right and wrong. Thinking more about appearance.
12 – 16 years In girls, growth may be slower than when they were younger. Pubic and under-arm hair will thicken due to puberty. Regular ovulation and periods should begin.

Boys will grow taller much faster, and the voice will deepen. They will have more body hair, ejaculations, and night emissions.

For both, the skin will become oilier, and acne may break out. They will have increased appetite and may feel tired quicker. Sexual desires will also increase.

They will develop an interest in the opposite sex and mood swings. They may see friends as more important than family and consider their body image more. They should make independent decisions and discern right from wrong. They may be able to compromise and plan for the future. They will have a more advanced vocabulary and understand complex sentences. They should give more detailed verbal and written explanations. They may have mood swings and feel sad or depressed. They may struggle with their identity, for example, sexuality, being adopted, and so on.
16 – 19 years They may experience mood swings, depression, and trouble with work. They should understand body changes more; the changes will be coming to an end. Sexual behavior will become more significant. They may be more intentional about their career and future. They may also be independent. They might be in a relationship and thinking about parenting. They should enjoy social interactions and have a deeper understanding of the law.


They should have more mature thoughts and goals. They will also be able to make independent decisions. Analytical skills become more profound. They will have a more advanced vocabulary and use difficult words. They should have more detailed stories. They will be able to switch between formal and informal speech. They may spend more time with their peers and engage in relationships. Disagreements with parents might also become more common.




Assessment Criteria 1.1.2

Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important.


The sequence of development refers to the pattern of skills that children learn throughout their development. For example, a baby learns to crawl before they walk. On the other hand, the rate of development means the time/speed at which a child develops their skills. However, all children are different; therefore, they develop at different paces. For instance, a child may learn to say a few words by 12 months, while another child may take a little longer.

Ultimately, the sequence of development is the order followed by the children as they develop their skills, whereas the rate of development is the speed of development. Notably, the rate of development varies from child to child.

Assessment Criteria 1.2.1

Explain how children’s and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors.




A child may be born with an illness, or it could happen later in life; either way, it can have a huge impact on the child’s development. A child may have many absences due to doctors/hospital appointments, which may cause them to miss out on what their peers been learning. A learning disability could prevent a child from developing qualities such as fine motor skills (Spence, 2003). That would affect a child when doing ordinary things like tying shoe-laces or using cutlery.  Children who are wheelchair users may not be able to take part in physical activities, hence lacking fine motor skills. Asthma is another illness that can have a huge impact on children’s development. Children with asthma may not take part in physical activities much; they may miss school due to appointments and checkups. Furthermore, if children are unable to play outside with their peers, they may not learn the social skills they need to develop.




Learning difficulties

Learning difficulties can affect a child’s development; for example, if a child has dyslexia, it affects how the brain takes in information; therefore, it can be a struggle to spell words, read and recognize words. It can make it hard for a child to keep up with their education, and therefore may need extra support. Having dyslexia can cause anxiety and maybe behavior problems for children as they may try their best to avoid reading and writing as they feel embarrassed; this can impact a child’s school life.

Another learning difficulty is ADHD; children with ADHD find it difficult to sit still for a long time; therefore, children may find ways to leave the classroom. As a result of this, important information during the lesson is missed; moreover, children with ADHD are distracted easily, and concentration is also difficult, so any information or instruction children are given will not be properly heard. Overall, ADHD can affect a child’s education, friendships, and home life.






Assessment criteria 1.2.2

Explain how children’s and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors.


There are many external factors in children and young people’s development that influence their development.




Children living in poverty can have an impact on their development as their health can be affected; for example, their body is not getting the correct nutrients it needs. It can lead to children feeling lethargic and not performing at school as well as possible. Several other issues not having a healthy diet can cause, such as anemia, which is caused by a lack of iron in the body.

Poor housing conditions are another factor; the home may be affected by damp, which causes health issues such as asthma. They may also be enough space to play and explore. Therefore children are not getting enough exercise, which can result in being overweight. It could affect children’s physical development and social development.

Quality of care (Abuse, neglect, love)-

Children need to be in a loving, happy environment for them to grow into happy, confident, happy adults. Neglect and abuse can harm children’s mental health and overall development. For example, a child that has been neglected may not have been given healthy foods or foods that will help development. A child’s Self-esteem can be affected which, therefore, may cause several issues in the future, such as substance abuse and social isolation. In school this can have an impact on the child’s education, confidence and therefore may hurt child’s school life.


Children’s bodies need the correct nutrients for them to be able to concentrate when in there learning environment. Diet is vital for children’s overall health, as it said that those who maintain a healthy diet are more likely to be happy. Undernutrition affects children’s energy; therefore, children’s learning will be affected. Growth, height, the weight will also have an impact. Furthermore, if children are not given healthy foods, they could have poor concentration.

Family Environment-

Some children may have grown up in an extended family, which means they would have more family members around them, which may make them feel protected. It is also very beneficial for children’s cognitive and social development. A loving, relaxed, calm environment can support children’s learning and development. Children who suffer from abuse or witness abuse may think that it is the norm. As a result of this, children may also have behavioral problems and also copy the violent behavior’s they have been witnessing.

Care status,

Children who live in care have to move around from place to place, and therefore their education is affected by this, children in care may hesitate to make friendships and form bonds with people as they may feel like they will not be staying in that particular place for long. Building trust and separation and attachment issues may occur.


Geographical influences

Where a child lives has a huge role in children’s development. The school your child attends, peers, what the area has to offer, for example, parks, libraries, community centers so children can meet people their ages and socialize. It is important for parents to take an interest in what children enjoy and what they may want to take part in.

1.2.3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice.

Paget theory

Paget supposed that it was vital for children to learn in what way they connected with the atmosphere. He believed that children’s cognitive development is rational and reasoned with their thinking. He distinguishes that children learn better when with guidance, relatively than when they are asked to do so and that each child has clear requirements.

B.F. Skinner’s theory:

B.F Skinner was a behaviorist. The theory of b.f Skinner was about operant conditioning (Catania & Harnad, 1998). Skinner believed that punishments, reinforcements influence behavior, Skinner advised people to draw assumptions based on the results of their behavior when discovering the environment.

Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory:

Sigmund Freud’s Psychological Theory of Personality is that human behaviour is the outcome of the communication between the three mechanisms of the mind: individuality, ego, and morality (Ahmed, 2012).

Bandura social learning theory:

Bandura is recognized for his social learning ideology. He emphasized that most human conduct knowledge is through thought, simulation, and demonstration (Bandura, 1978). He developed a societal learning theory that recommends three controlling systems to manage behavior.

Lev Vygotsky:

Lev’s social ideology states that social communication inside the domestic and with those who know society is the principal means by which children acquire social and reasoning practices related to their community (Tappan, 1998). Mental development emphasizes the part of the culture in the growth of higher mind purposes, such as language and cognition in children.

Abraham Maslow:

Psychologist Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is based on five key classification steps. These steps help parents and teachers comprehend how to best care for young children and their precise requirements (Simons, Irwin & Drnnien, 2009). The five steps are usually exposed as a pyramid shown below,






Social pedagogy:

Social education is mainly concerned with well-being learning and development. The idea is that everyone has a natural ability, is appreciated, imaginative, and can make a strong influence on the broader community if they participate. Teaching theories disclose in what way things should be trained and in what way someone should learn.

Task: 6: Explain how to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods.

Children and young people can be monitored informally (leading natural explanations, gathering information, and using children’s effort, instructor and teacher scores) and formal (using diagnostic tools like surveys and consistent testing). There are different ways of measuring, copying, and monitoring young and children’s development (King, Shields, Imms, Black, & Ardern, 2013). Annotations allow an expert to evaluate a child’s development also allow suitable preparation for the development and further progress of the child.

There are numerous reasons for children observing learning;

Observers usually tell the truth about what they see and hear during natural events. This way of observation rotates around the child walking as usual. This technique is good since it allows viewers to perceive the child in a natural atmosphere that observes the child correctly.


Task: 7: Explain why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern.


A physically disabled youngster or young individual might be involved in problems related to practical, holistic, and excellent motorized services. They may have hearing or vision impairments that can affect their aptitude, performance, or learning.

Development cannot trail the expected design for several reasons.

Incapacity may include physical or learning inabilities. Children with learning incapacity may not be able to control their consideration for long periods or pay full attention in class.

Task: 8 Explain how disability may affect development.

Children with the knowledge or physical incapacities might be treated differently in school because they may be treated inversely from further offspring. They might feel intimidated or taunted by other students, which may affect their confidence and consequently disturb their learning abilities and progress. Incapacities are put into diverse forms, namely learning or corporeal. A learning incapacity that affects expansion can disturb their ability to develop or communicate in societal surroundings or the classroom. Dyslexia; Learning to read is difficult. If it is not recognized, it can disturb their growth at institute or school and reduce their chances of success. Brainy palsy is a syndrome that disrupts one’s mobility, posture, and direction. With this incapacity, a child can solitary be exaggerated by this incapacity, while others can be pretentious by appropriations, speech, and language complications.

Task: 9: Explain how different interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern.

Numerous specialists can help with the progress of children’s development who are not ensuing the predictable pattern of the progress; provision is typically provided by institutes or schools, that is to say, Special Educational Needs Coordinator (Clarkson, Eckert, 2010). If a child starts education at school with incapacity, SENCO will be notified. The baby may already be getting help from several professionals.

Numerous experts can be requested to support children and families affected by developmental delays. Most of them work autonomously, but the mainstream work in a multi-agency corporation to confirm that the child receives the best possible care.

Community workers are presented to help helpless families, which may contain child defense registrations or children with disabilities. They offer applied assistance and guidance.

Task: 10 analyze the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays, and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition.

It is important that early recognition and immediate interventions to support families and their children so that problems can be fixed before they become problematic (Mitchell, Brian, Zwaigenbaum, Roberts, Szatmari, Smith, & Bryson, 2006). This method of thoughtful, primary identification and involvement is significant throughout a child’s lifespan.

As far as a social characteristic is concerned, language or philological damage can affect the prevention, behavioral anxiety, and associations. Offspring become self-centered and fidgety as a substitute for persons they don’t recognize or who don’t understand what they are saying.

Task: 11

Explain how multi-agency teams work together to support speech, language, and communication.


Language and communication of the speech by the teacher, TA, and SENCO; Once the style of speech is recognized in children or adolescents with delayed development. A communication therapist will be contacted (Gascoigne, 2006). Multi-agency employed carries together experts from various fields and careers to deliver a united way of working to support families, adolescents, and children. It’s a technique of working in which families and children require additional assistance. Crew members will exchange information and support each other discourse the child’s requirements efficiently and professionally.

All daycare and teaching agencies must guarantee that everybody has the applicable data regarding the child and the childcare strategy so that all interventions work collectively to deliver the child. Offer the highest complete maintenance.

Task: 12 explain how to play, and activities are used to support the development of speech, language, and communication.

Play allows kids to use the language assistance they have erudite and acclimatize to their extended language. Interacting with children and companions also permits offspring to progress their language by attending to others.

Children who can clear their arguments and philosophies have benefits in delivering knowledge to children who have mastered the language skills. Spoken linguistic teaches offspring social implications, giving them information about specific circumstances that aid them in recognizing reading.

Task 13: explain how different types of transitions can affect children and young people’s development.

Some variations unavoidably occur in every child, as these are usually symbols in everybody’s life that fall into three types: social, community, and intelligent transitions. A comparable changeover happens when the kid starts primary school and later goes on to secondary schooling.

Task 14: evaluate the effect on children and young people of having a positive relationship during the period of transition 

A transition is well-defined as the procedure or period of a transfer from one state/state to the alternative. When seeing the influence of the changeover on families and children, I believe it is significant to feel the variation as a procedure in any feature of life, relatively than in the future. Steadiness is essential in a kid’s first years.









Ahmed, S. (2012). Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory. Retrieved from

Bandura, A. (1978). SocialLearning Theory of Agression. Retrieved from

Catania, A. C., & Harnad, S. (1998). The Selection of Behaviour. Retrieved from

Clarkson, J., & Eckert, C. (Eds.). (2010). Design process improvement: a review of current practice. Springer Science & Business Media.

Coren, E., Hossain, R., Pardo, J. P., Veras, M. M., Chakraborty, K., Harris, H., & Martin, A. J. (2013). Interventions for promoting reintegration and reducing harmful behaviour and lifestyles in street‐connected children and young people. Evidence‐based child health: a Cochrane review journal8(4), 1140-1272.

Gascoigne, M. (2006). Supporting children with speech, language, and communication needs within integrated children’s services. RCSLT Position paper.

Holt, S., Buckley, H., & Whelan, S. (2008). The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: A review of the literature. Child abuse & neglect32(8), 797-810.

King, M., Shields, N., Imms, C., Black, M., & Ardern, C. (2013). Participation of children with intellectual disability compared with typically developing children. Research in developmental disabilities34(5), 1854-1862.

Mitchell, S., Brian, J., Zwaigenbaum, L., Roberts, W., Szatmari, P., Smith, I., & Bryson, S. (2006). Early language and communication development of infants later diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics27(2), S69-S78.

Patton, D. (2018). Health, Physical Education, And Sports. Scientific e-Resources.

Simons, J. A., Irwin, D. B., & Drinnien, B. A. (n.d.). Maslow’s Hireachy of Needs. Retrieved from

Spence, S. H. (2003). Social skills training with children and young people: Theory, evidence, and practice. Child and adolescent mental health8(2), 84-96.

Tappan, M. B. (1998). Sociocultural Psychology and Caring Pedagogy. Retrieved from

Tyler, K. A. (2006). A qualitative study of early family histories and transitions of homeless youth. Journal of interpersonal violence21(10), 1385-1393.Supporting Teaching & Learning in Schools Level 3 (QCF)
ASSIGNMENT 1 – Understand Child and Young Person Development
TASK 1: Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth-19 years
The following table details the key aspects of children and young people’s development – physical, social and emotional, intellectual and language. The source material I have referred to breaks down development into five stages by age:
Age Range Physical Social & Emotional Intellectual Language
During the first year, babies begin to develop more control over their bodies and most will display the first signs of mobility (e.g. crawling). By the age of 2, most will start to walk and by the age of 3 will have begun to refine their fine motor skills
Children begin to develop a sense of their own identity, and form a strong attachment to the adults in their life. There can be challenging behaviour at this stage through frustration and the wish to do things for themselves.
Babies learn initially through observing and through repetitive activities. Later, they learn to distinguish different objects, colours etc.
Babies are not able to understand language, but will listen and respond to music and other sounds. Most will start to try to use words by the age of 1, and by the age of 2 they will start to put words together to form sentences.
More control over fine motor skills (e.g. writing, cutting) and more confidence with physical activities such as running, hopping or kicking a ball
Children become much more social with other children and more able to share and more willing/able to help.
Children begin to seek adult approval and learn to understand letters and numbers. Reading and writing skills increase rapidly.
A child’s vocabulary will increase rapidly. Confidence and accuracy grows in using different tenses, and they tend to question a lot more.
Hobbies will develop, helping children gain specific movement skills
Friendship groups become more settled, and children develop a stronger sense of
Children develop their own interests and ideas about subjects that they enjoy. They
By the age of 7, most children will be fluent speakers. Reading and
Page | 2
(e.g. through sports) or specific fine motor skills (e.g. playing a musical instrument). Some children (usually girls) may also show some early signs of puberty.
independence. They continue to respond well to praise and encouragement
become fluent in reading and writing to learn to think more creatively.
writing skills continue to grow, and children gain confidence with more complex use of grammar.
This is the main development stage for puberty. Children grow stronger and taller, but at very different rates. Girls start to have regular periods.
During puberty, self-confidence can be an issue as their bodies change. Young people in this age range will generally want to spend more time with people their own age rather than adults.
Children will have strong preferences for certain subjects and will be motivated to learn more in those areas.
Language skills continue to be refined. Creativity of language continues to increase.
Young people reach physical maturity and most stop growing, although some will continue to grow and change into their twenties
Young people in this range will differ greatly in emotional maturity, and will need different levels of guidance from the adults in their lives. Although they will have a well-developed sense of independence, they can lack experience and maturity.
Young people will have a strong idea of career path and areas of work or learning they want to pursue.
By 19, young people generally have an ‘adult’ standard of language, but continue to learn and discover new ways of using language
Page | 3
TASK 2: Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important
Rate of development can be explained as being the recognised/usual timeframe in which particular milestones are expected to occur. Sequence of development is the expected order in which these milestones will be reached.
By understanding the expected rate and sequence of development, teachers are better equipped to plan learning activities which are suited to the child’s age and developmental stage. By having a guide to where a child is expected to be by a certain age, it is easier to highlight and address areas where a child is falling behind expectation (known as developmental delays).
TASK 3: Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors
There are many personal factors that can influence a child’s development. A child may have a health condition which involves them being absent from school for regular or extended periods, causing them to fall behind in their education.
If a child has a physical disability, this could hinder their social and emotional development as they may not be able to take part in the same activities as their friends/classmates. In the case of a sensory impairment such as deafness, there could be communication hurdles to overcome, and possibly problems regarding their inclusion with other classmates
Similarly, if a child has a learning difficulty, one or more aspect of their development may be delayed and additional support may be required at school
TASK 4: Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors
There are many external factors that can affect a child’s development. Their family/home circumstances can play a large part in this. For example, they may come from a household where parents don’t take an interest in their learning, and don’t encourage them (e.g. the parent may not read with them).
The child could find themselves in an abusive family environment, or live in a deprived household/community, where there is insufficient money to fund the materials needed for school or additional events such as school trips or after school activities.
Other factors like a family break-up or bereavement could cause disruption to family life that affects the development of a child in one or more aspect of their development.
If a child comes to school with previous exposure to an environment such as a nursery or playgroup, they can be more likely to settle into the school environment better than one who has no previous experience.
Page | 4
TASK 5: Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice
Over the years, there have been many theories of child development, and these can all have an effect on modern-day education.
The table below outlines some of these theories, and how then influence teaching and learning in schools:
Theory Description Influence
Jean Piaget
Piaget believed that a child’s learning is governed by their age and stage of development, and that it is closely linked to their own experiences. So in order to further their learning, children need to extend their experiences.
Learning activities that are relevant to the child’s age and developmental stage. This all starts at the Early Years Foundation Stage, where children are encouraged to learn through play.
Sigmund Freud
Freud linked the stages of child development to different ‘pleasure areas’ of the body, believing that development was rooted in sexual desires. Freud also devised a theory of what he called ‘The Id, the Ego and the Superego’ – the three competing parts of our personalities which all influence the way we behave
Freud’s theory can assist in understanding how a child’s personality and sense of right and wrong develops, and potentially inform how a child’s behaviour is managed.
B.F Skinner
Operant Conditioning
Skinner’s theory is based around the thinking that a particular behaviour results in a particular outcome, and that we are likely to repeat experiences which are enjoyable and avoid those which are not.
Skinner used the term ‘positive reinforcement’, and this is practised regularly in the classroom, where a pupil will be praised/rewarded for working well on a task, in the hope that they will want to repeat that task in the future
Albert Bandura
Social Learning
Bandura’s theory is based on learning by watching and copying others, including parents, siblings and friends.
Similar to ‘operant conditioning’, the thinking is that a child will copy the behaviour they have seen if
Schools encourage pupils to be positive role models for each other. Likewise, adults are expected to set a good example for the children in their care
Page | 5
it is rewarded with attention or praise.
Lev Vygotsky
Vygotsky’s theory centres on a child learning through being guided by a teacher/parent or carer and interacting with their peers. It also states that a child’s learning is informed by the culture in which they exist (e.g. their family environment). The theory contains the concept of the ‘zone of proximal development’ – the gap between what a person can do with help and what they can do on their own. ‘Instructional scaffolding’ means that, initially, the majority of the guidance comes from the parent/teacher and gradually reduces until the learner can work independently
A classroom environment is very much based on both guidance from the teacher, and interaction with classmates.
Abraham Maslow
Maslow created the ‘hierarchy of needs (included below) and believed that , although human psychology is based on free will, certain needs have to be met before we can reach our full potential
Schools understand that, in order for children to learn effectively, they must have their basic needs met, feel comfortable in the school environment and have a sense of belonging.
Social Pedagogy
Social Pedagogy is a humanistic framework which relies on a holistic approach towards a child’s needs through health, school, family and spiritual life. It puts the child into a situation where the classroom is a community, where people interact and work together.
Schools recognise that bringing up children is the shared responsibility of families, schools and (where necessary) partner agencies, and work seek to establish good working links in these areas. Social Pedagogy also informs the modern day method of ‘working alongside’ a child to support their learning, rather than the old-fashioned idea of dictating information from the front of the class
Page | 6
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
As stated above, Jean Piaget’s theory believed that a child’s learning is governed by their age and stage of development. The National Curriculum bases the expectations of children’s ability in terms of their age, and allows teachers to assess how a child is developing, and plan activities to assist in their continued development. Progress is also measured through the formal assessments that occur through a child’s school life (e.g. SAT’s, GCSE’s).
Abraham Maslow’s ‘hierarchy of needs’ can be said to directly inform the Every Child Matters framework, which has the aim of giving all children the support they need to stay safe, be healthy, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution and achieve economic well-being. Addressing a child’s personal needs and ensuring these are met will only assist in their development
Page | 7
It also informs the Early Years Foundation stage framework, which is in place to:
• set the standards that all early years providers must meet to ensure that children learn and develop well
• ensure children are kept healthy and safe
• ensure that children have the knowledge and skills they need to start school
Vygotsky’s theory is reflected in the national curriculum, where independent and collaborative learning are encouraged, and works to the idea of ‘instructional scaffolding’ where guidance is given, and then gradually taken away to promote independent learning.
TASK 6: Explain how to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods
On a day-to-day basis, informal observations by teaching assistants in the classroom help to build a picture of a child’s general learning ability, and potentially highlight any ‘developmental delays’. Observations are recorded, and progress can be tracked and monitored, with information being shared with the teacher and, where appropriate, parents or carers.
Regarding physical development, health practitioners will use standard measurements to determine whether a child is developing at the expected rate. Again, this information may be shared with education professionals and other agencies in order to build up a holistic picture of the child’s development.
Within schools, professionals such as SENCOs will employ procedures such as the Common Assessment Framework (CAF) to determine whether a child is in need of additional support services. The CAF was introduced as part of the Every Child Matters initiative, and is designed to bring together the relevant services for children who have additional needs that are not being met.
TASK 7: Explain the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern
There are a wide range of reasons why a child or young person’s development may not follow the expected pattern. Many of the factors outlined in tasks 3 and 4 can have a major effect in this area, as they all can disrupt a child’s access to learning experiences, or divert their focus away from school work.
External factors (often connected to the child’s home environment/situation) can have a major effect on a child’s development and progress in school.
In addition, there are personal factors such as a health condition, physical disability or learning difficulty that contribute to a developmental delay. In these cases, children may require additional support services (both inside and outside of school) to help prevent them from falling behind. It is essential that issues are highlighted and addressed as quickly as possible.
Page | 8
TASK 8: Explain how disability may affect development
Disability may affect a child’s development in a number of ways, some of which may not be immediately obvious.
A child with a physical disability may feel excluded and may become withdrawn, affecting their social development. They may also display behavioural difficulties due to the frustration of not being able to participate in certain activities, or through a feeling of being excluded.
Another way that disability can affect development is when adults assume that a disabled child will not be able to achieve or participate, and then restrict their access to certain learning experiences as a result, which can then restrict the potential for the child’s development.
TASK 9: Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern
For children who are not progressing at the expected rate, there are a range of support services available both inside and outside of school.
Teaching assistants will often work with pupils when they are in need of additional support with numeracy or literacy (either in small groups or on a one-to-one basis). Progress will be fed back to the class teacher, SENCO and other professionals within the school in order to monitor.
There are also a number of external professionals who work with students with additional needs.
Speech and Language Therapists
A therapist will diagnose a particular communication problem, and work alongside the school and family to monitor and review progress
Educational Psychologist
A psychologist will most likely become involved if an intervention from the school and partner professionals has not been effective in producing a positive outcome. They will carry out their own assessment and recommend a course of action
A psychiatrist would become involved if concerns have been identified with the child’s emotional development. Multiple stages of assessment and referral will generally have taken place before the need for a psychiatrist is established
Nurse/Health Visitor
These professionals would work with a child who has a particular health condition that requires additional support within the school. They work in partnership with the school and family and give advice on what support is required.
Page | 9
As with other professionals, a physiotherapist will likely be working with a child outside of school, and will come into school to advise staff on what support is required and what targets have been put in place for progress.
Social Worker
Social Workers will typically become involved with a child if there are concerns about their home environment. Sometimes, this is a voluntary request from the family, but it could also be because the school has identified a concern and made a referral to social services
Youth Justice
Youth justice services are designed to stop children and young people offending. They may work in partnership with particular schools or education authorities where offending rates are high, and will often provide inclusion services targeted towards individuals who have been identified as at risk of offending.
TASK 10: Analyse the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition
For children with speech, language or communication delays, early intervention is very important. Language is closely linked to our ability to process information and organise our thoughts, so children with delayed development in this area can struggle with many aspects of their learning.
In addition to challenges with learning, children with communication delays can struggle to express themselves in social situations, making it harder for them to form relationships. This can cause frustration, isolation and, in some cases, lead to behavioural problems.
Late recognition of language delays can significantly hinder a child’s progress as they continue through school and the curriculum gets harder, as the ability to think creatively and express themselves becomes more important.
TASK 11: Explain how multi agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication
When a child is identified as having speech, language or communication problems, there are many professionals who can become involved in their care and education.
Within the school, the SENCO will take a prominent role in co-ordinating everyone who works with the child. Class teachers, teaching assistants and other support staff all continue to play an important role in supporting the child in their day to day learning.
In addition to school staff, external professionals who may form part of a child’s support team include Speech and Language Therapists and Educational Psychologists (detailed in Task 9), Sensory Support Teachers and Autism Advisory Teachers.
Sensory Support Teachers are normally accessed through the local authority, and have a particular role to play in supporting children with visual or hearing impairments. They are able to advise schools on specific ways of supporting the child and can also provide additional physical resources where required.
Page | 10
Autism Advisory Teachers advise schools on how best to support children with autism spectrum conditions. Children with autism often struggle with communication and social interaction, which can hinder a child’s ability to learn. Autism Advisory Teachers are able to provide specific advice on how to address these problems and deliver the best outcome possible for the child concerned.
TASK 12: Explain how play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication
Within the Early Years Foundation Stage, there is a heavy emphasis on ‘learning through play’, which gives children endless opportunities to communicate and use language, through activities such as role-play, drawing or painting as a group or taking part in songs or stories together. This, in turn, gives teachers and carers many opportunities to encourage communication and expand the child’s vocabulary. In addition, it can highlight where individuals may have problems in certain aspects of communicating.
For those who struggle or lack confidence in a formal learning environment, the use of play to develop and reinforce language ability allows the child to express themselves away from what can be regarded as a more ‘pressured’ environment in a classroom setting.
In the field of broadcasting (my previous occupation), I introduced a theory that ‘interaction breeds interaction’. While there may not be many parallels in the finer details, I feel it is a phrase that sits very well here. It is important for all children to take part in group activities that involve discussion, compromise and ‘co-operative learning’ – for example, a group project to presented to the rest of their class. In this way, children learn to work together, express their own ideas and opinions while also learning to take on board the opinions of others.
For children with speech and language issues, it may be necessary to communicate via a range of non-verbal means. This can be achieved through the use of gestures and body language, but may involve the use of symbols, pictures or even sign language. These can allow the child to express themselves more clearly and hopefully reduce the potential for frustration.
TASK 13: Explain how different types of transitions can affect children and young people’s development
There are many kinds of transition that a child or young person may find in their lives, and these can all have an impact on development.
We are all aware of the changes that take place during puberty, and how these can affect focus on learning and on personal relationships. Many children will also face transition in their personal lives, either through bereavement, moving house, the separation of their parents or the arrival of a new sibling. If not handled sensitively, these sorts of transitions can impact on a child’s emotional development and make it harder for them to form relationships in the future.
All children will face the transition from one learning environment to another – maybe when they move from a pre-school setting to a primary school, but definitely when they move from
Page | 11
primary to secondary education. This can be a stressful experience – not just for the child, but also for their parents or carers. It is vital that these transitions are made as smooth as possible so the child can settle quickly and focus on learning in their new environment.
TASK 14: Evaluate the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transition
During periods of transition, it is vital that children and young people have someone they can trust in their lives, and with whom they feel they can share their thoughts and feelings. With these kinds of positive relationships in place, children will hopefully feel that they are listened to and, despite whatever upheaval they are experiencing, someone is ‘on their side’.
Without this support, it is more likely that a child will keep their feelings to themselves. This could lead to them feeling isolated or withdrawn and potentially have a negative impact on their behaviour and emotional wellbeing.
• Burnham, L & Baker, B. “Supporting Teaching and Learning in Schools (Primary)”. Heinemann, Harlow
• Verywell website,, accessed 26/09/2017
• Wikipedia,, accessed 27/09/2017
• Infed website: Social pedagogy: the development of theory and practice, accessed 27/09/2017
• Burnham, L & Baker, B. “Supporting Teaching and Learning in Schools (Primary)”. Heinemann, Harlow
• Simply Psychology website: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs,, accessed 27/09/2017
• Early years (under 5s) foundation stage framework (EYFS), UK Government website,–2, accessed 14/11/2017
• DfES website: Common assessment framework consultation document (2004), accessed 27/09/2017
Page | 12
• West Sussex County Council website,, accessed 16/10/2017



My Homework Nest
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -